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Corruption: Causes and Solutions

Updated on April 3, 2017

What is Corruption? Why Is It a Problem?

Corruption can mean different things for different people. In short, corruption means the practice of obtaining power, influence, or other personal gains through illegitimate means, often at others' expense. Corruption is an unconscionable advantage, profit or gain of injustice through the abuse of authority and power (Ubani 2016). Ubani went further and stated, “however, corruption anywhere does not exist in a vacuum”.

The more widespread and acceptable corrupt methods are in a given society, the more corrupt that society is said to be. Corruption has resulted to crises in many parts of the world, and those on top have used it to take advantage of others.

Some examples:

  • Typically, the word calls to mind political corruption, which could refer to a politician who, rather than letting the voters decide to elect him, will bribe and steal his way into office.
  • A corrupt company, for example, may only promote individuals who perform personal favors for their boss.
  • Corruption in a university setting may take the form of lecturers accepting cash for higher marks.

Corruption exists in any institution where legitimate means of getting ahead are circumvented by allowing individuals to enhance their personal power with money or favors. As a result, it becomes harder or impossible for others to operate above board.

Why is corruption bad? If the proper channels to power and influence (working hard, not breaking the law, doing well on university exams, running a persuasive political campaign, etc.) are closed off, only those with money and connections will be able to succeed. Those who can neither afford bribes nor know who to call to get jobs for their children are out of luck. In short, corruption only benefits those who already have power, money, and influence.

What Are the Most and Least Corrupt Countries in the World?

Transparency International's world corruption map. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0
Transparency International's world corruption map. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 | Source

What are the Most and Least Corrupt Countries in the World?

Since a lot of corruption is undetected, it is often measured by the perception of corruption within a given country. If people believe their country is corrupt, then that is taken as an indication that it is. Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index (CPI), tabulated in 2013, uses polls and third-party assessments to score and rank public-sector corruption around the world.

According to Transparency International's 2013 CPI, the 10 most corrupt countries in the world are:

  1. Somalia
  2. North Korea
  3. Afghanistan
  4. Sudan
  5. South Sudan
  6. Libya
  7. Iraq
  8. Turkmenistan
  9. Syria
  10. Uzbekistan

The least corrupt countries according to Transparency International are:

  1. Denmark
  2. New Zealand
  3. Sweden
  4. Finland
  5. Norway
  6. Singapore
  7. Switzerland
  8. Netherlands
  9. Australia
  10. Canada

What are the most and least corrupt countries in the world by continent, according to Transparency International's 2013 Corruption Perceptions Index?

Top Ten Most and Least Corrupt Countries in Africa

Most Corrupt (Rank)
Least Corrupt (Rank)
Somalia (175)
Botswana (30)
Sudan (174)
Cape Verde (41)
South Sudan (173)
Seychelles (47)
Libya (172)
Rwanda (49)
Guinea Bissau (163)
Mauritius (52)
Equatorial Guinea (163)
Lesotho (55)
Chad (163)
Namibia (57)
Eritrea (160)
Ghana (63)
Zimbabwe (157)
Sao Tome and Principe (72)
Burundi (157)
South Africa (72)
Source: http://www.transparency.org/cpi2013/results, out of 177 countries and territories.

However, many African nations have been taken to task in recent years for widespread corruption. For example, a 2011 Gallup poll in Nigeria found that 94% of Nigerians think corruption is widespread in the government. What a shameful problem.


Corruption Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe is an Africa country where corruption is one of the benefactors for a long time. Corruption in this country is experienced in many sectors, both in private and public offices. In politics, corruption is “heavy swimming” as average politicians cannot do without indulging in one corrupt practice to another before they win in any election. In fact, the less connected citizens of Zimbabwe are the one that suffers as wealth which is to be evenly distributed are being utilized by the top politicians alone.

In 2013, about 77% of the citizens of Zimbabwe said that corruption was very serious in the country (Transparency International, 2013). The corruption level in the country made the country the country the 9th most corrupt country in the year 2013. As if the estimate was not enough, 92% of the surveyed citizens of the country lamented that the police force of the country is corrupt.

10 Most and Least Corrupt Countries in Europe

Most Corrupt (Rank)
Least Corrupt (Rank)
Ukraine (144)
Denmark (1)
Russia (127)
Sweden (3)
Belarus (123)
Finland (3)
Albania (116)
Norway (5)
Kosovo (111)
Switzerland (7)
Moldova (102)
Netherlands (8)
Greece (80)
Luxembourg (11)
Bulgaria (77)
Germany (12)
Serbia (72)
Iceland (12)
Bosnia and Herzegovina (72)
United Kingdom (14)
Source: http://www.transparency.org/cpi2013/results, out of 177 countries and territories.

10 Most and Least Corrupt Countries in Asia and the Middle East

Most Corrupt (Rank)
Least Corrupt (Rank)
Afghanistan (175)
Singapore (5)
North Korea (175)
Hong Kong (15)
Iraq (171)
Japan (18)
Turkmenistan (168)
United Arab Emirates (26)
Syria (168)
Qatar (28)
Uzbekistan (168)
Bhutan (31)
Yemen (167)
Taiwan (36)
Cambodia (160)
Israel (36)
Myanmar (157)
Brunei (38)
Tajikistan (154)
South Korea (46)
Source: http://www.transparency.org/cpi2013/results, out of 177 countries and territories.

The 10 Most and Least Corrupt Countries in the Americas

Most Corrupt (Rank)
Least Corrupt (Rank)
Haiti (163)
Canada (9)
Venezuela (160)
Barbados (15)
Paraguay (150)
United States (19)
Honduras (140)
Uruguay (19)
Guyana (136)
Bahamas (22)
Nicaragua (127)
Saint Lucia (22)
Guatemala (123)
Chile (22)
Dominican Republic (123)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (33)
Mexico (106)
Puerto Rico (33)
Argentina (106)
Dominica (41)
Source: http://www.transparency.org/cpi2013/results, out of 177 countries and territories.

The Most Corrupt Countries in 2014

Who are the most corrupt countries or nations in 2014?

According to the result released by Transparency International on 3rd December 2014, the ten most corrupt countries in 2014 are:

  • Somalia
  • Korea (North)
  • Sudan
  • Afghanistan
  • South Sudan
  • Iraq
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Eritrea
  • Libya

Somalia is the most corrupt country in 2014 followed by North Korea and the results follow the listed trend. Comparing corruption ranking in 2014 with that of 2013 shows that Somalia still remains the world's most corrupt country followed by North Korea.The two countries were the most corrupt in 2013 and 2014. In the year 2014, Afghanistan improved by occupying the world 4th most corrupt country and Sudan increased in corruption by recording the world 3rd most corrupt in 2014.

The Least Corrupt Countries in 2014

  • Denmark
  • New Zealand
  • Finland
  • Sweden
  • Norway
  • Switzerland
  • Singapore
  • Netherlands
  • Luxembourg
  • Canada

Denmark still remains the world's least corrupt country. The country was the least corrupt in 2013 and still made the good result in the year 2014. Also, New Zealand which is the country that first gave women the right to vote during election still maintains its position as the world's second least corrupt country. Sweden dropped in 2014 as they are the 4th least corrupt country than the 3rd (third) position it occupied in 2013.



Most Corrupt Countries in 2015

According to the report published by Transparency International in the year 2015, Poor countries lose US$1 trillion a year to corruption. This is really a pitiable situation.
The Chair, Transparency International, José Ugaz, said this on the corruption perception report of the year 2015:
"The 2015 Corruption Perceptions Index clearly shows that corruption remains a blight around the world. But 2015 was also a year when people again took to the streets to protest corruption. People across the globe sent a strong signal to those in power: it is time to tackle grand corruption."
Hence, the top ten most corrupt countries in the year 2015 are:
(1) Somalia
(2) North Korea
(3) Afghanistan
(4) Sudan
(5) South Sudan
(6) Angola
(7) Libya
(8) Iraq
(9) Venezuela and
(10) Guinea-Bissau

Other Methods for Tabulating Corruption

Other countries have been identified as exceptionally corrupt using other methods. For example, in 2013, Freedom House polled the perception of government corruption in "Free Press Countries," places where the freedom of the media is not limited and where corruption is more likely to be reported; "Partly Free Press Countries;" and "Not Free Press Countries."

Perceived Corruption in Free Press, Partly Free Press, and Not Free Press Countries

Free Press
Partly Free Press
Not Free Press
Czech Republic (94%)
Tanzania (95%)
Chad (92%)
Lithuania (90%)
Kenya (93%)
Cameroon (89%)
Ghana (89%)
Greece (92%)
Honduras (87%)
Portugal (88%)
Nigeria (92%)
Russia (80%)
South Africa (88%)
Uganda (91%)
Zimbabwe (78%)
Italy (86%)
Kosovo (90%)
Paraguay (77%)
Costa Rica (82%)
Bosnia and Herzegovina (89%)
Republic of the Congo (77%)
South Korea (80%)
Malawi (88%)
Cambodia (77%)
Hungary (79%)
Indonesia (88%)
Afghanistan (77%)
Cyprus (77%)
Thailand (87%)
Yemen (77%)

Top Ten most Corrupt Countries in 2016

Transparency International have not failed in giving updates on the nations that have dirtied their hands by indulging in massive corrupt practices. According to the organization, corruption still remains rampant in public sector. The chairman of the organization lamented on the harm of the menace in 2016 through these words:

"In too many countries, people are deprived of their most basic needs and go to bed hungry every night because of corruption, while the powerful and corrupt enjoy lavish lifestyles with impunity.” – José Ugaz, Chair of Transparency International.

In the year 2016, 176 countries and territories were surveyed and over two-thirds of the countries and territories in that year index fall below the midpoint of our scale of 0 (highly corrupt) to 100 (very clean).


The top ten most corrupt nations in 2016 are:

1. Somalia

2. South Sudan

3. Korea (North)

4. Syria

5. Yemen

6. Sudan

7. Libya

8. Afghanistan

9. Guinea-Bissau

10. Venezuela


While these lists represent the worst offenders, it's important to keep in mind that no nation is free from corruption.

Corruption and Economic Competition

Transparency International, Competitiveness and Corruption, Prague 1998. Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
Transparency International, Competitiveness and Corruption, Prague 1998. Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. | Source

At a workshop in Prague in 1998, Transparency International reviewed the relationship between competitiveness and corruption. The idea was also discussed at the International Anti-Corruption Conference in 2001. The World Bank Institute and other research groups have also researched the relationship between competition and corruption, finding that corruption stifles competition, economic development, and the competitive advantage of a given country.

What Causes Corruption?

What are the causes of corruption? People do not indulge in corrupt practice because they like doing so; rather, it is often their only option. To an extent, the causes of corruption vary from place to place. The causes of corruption in a closed dictatorship like North Korea may not be the same in a large democracy like Kenya. But there are still some general causes:

  • Poverty: Poverty not only encourages corruption but corrupt public institutions, in turn, exacerbate poverty. The poor engage in corrupt practices out of desperation, but the only people who benefit in the long run are those already in power. It's no coincidence that the most corrupt countries often have the poorest citizens, or are otherwise ravished by war and violence. 80% of Africans live on less than $2 a day. In 2010, the United Nations estimated that 239 million people in sub-Saharan Africa were undernourished. When the poor do not have what they will eat, they are forced to make money through cut-corners which are corrupt. The countries at the bottom of the corruption rankings, mostly in northern Europe, are among the wealthiest in the world. While it is difficult to say whether poverty causes corruption or corruption causes poverty, there is no question that the two are linked.
  • Illiteracy and Poor Education: Similar to poverty, the most corrupt countries are often those with low rates of adult literacy. Literacy can prevent corruption in a number of ways. First, those who can read well are more likely to read newspapers and online media, and therefore be able to critically evaluate their own public institutions and politicians. Corruption feeds off ignorance. Second, basic education makes people more likely to find stable careers, and therefore they are less desperate. Again, while it's hard to say whether illiteracy causes corruption, or whether literacy can stop corruption, the table below illustrates that the countries with low literacy rates are higher up in the corruption ranking than those with high literacy rates.

Countries with the Lowest World Literacy Rates and Their Corruption Rankings

Countries With Lowest Literacy Rates
Literacy Rate
Corruption Ranking
1. South Sudan
27%
173/177
2. Mali
27.7%
127/177
3. Afghanistan
28.1%
175/177
4. Burkina Faso
28.7%
83/177
5. Niger
28.7%
106/177
6. Sierra Leone
35.1%
119/177
7. Chad
35.4%
163/177
8. Ethiopia
39%
111/177
9. Senegal
39.3%
77/177
10. Guinea
41%
150/177
Literacy Rates indicate the percentage of inhabitants over the age of 15 who can read and write. Ranked on Wikipedia with data taken from the CIA World Factbook: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_literacy_rate

As the table above illustrates, 8 of the 10 countries with the lowest literacy rates are in the bottom half of the world's low-corruption rankings, and 4 of them are in the bottom quarter.

World Literacy Map

World map of literacy, UN Human Development Report 2011. Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
World map of literacy, UN Human Development Report 2011. Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. | Source
  • Unemployment. Similar to education and literacy, the unemployed are more likely to succumb to illegal ways of making money out of desperation. Many internet scammers and other grifters engage in this type of activity because they lack the opportunity to make legitimate gains. How do the countries with the highest rates of unemployment fare on the corruption scale?

Countries with the Highest Unemployment Rates vs. Low-Corruption Rankings

Country
Unemployment Rate
Corruption Ranking
1. Turkmenistan
70%
168/177
2. Zimbabwe
70%
157/177
3. Mozambique
60%
119/177
4. Tajikistan
60%
154/177
5. Djibouti
59%
94/177
6. Namibia
51.2%
57/177
7. Senegal
48%
77/177
8. Nepal
46%
116/177
9. Kosovo
45.3%
111/177
10. Bosnia and Herzegovina
44.5%
72/177
Unemployment rankings from Wikipedia, based on official domestic data from each country (methods and reliability vary): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_unemployment_rate

While not as clear-cut as illiteracy rates, 6 of the 10 countries with the highest unemployment rates are in the bottom half of Transparency International's low-corruption rankings. None fared particularly well on low-corruption rankings, with Namibia being the closest as the 54th least corrupt country in the world.

Demonstration against unemployment in Kerala, India. "Dyfiharipadarally (32)". Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.5.
Demonstration against unemployment in Kerala, India. "Dyfiharipadarally (32)". Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.5. | Source
  • Greed: Greediness is impossible to tabulate, but it is undoubtedly an important cause of corruption. Corruption continues to exist because the people with the most in a society are not content with what they have. The more they have, the more they want to acquire. In corrupt societies, politics is an avenue for greed as leaders use their positions to embezzle vast amounts of public funds meant for the public good.
  • Weak Governments: In corrupt societies, governments are unable or unwilling to stop corruption. They lack strong-willed or impartial anti-corruption agencies, and such agencies can easily be swallowed into corruption themselves. When such agencies are honest, their work is slow. In the worst cases, leaders staff anti-corruption agencies with their friends. The impotence of governments in the face of corruption is mimicked in the private sector. Corrupt business practices continue because executives are often the beneficiaries of those practices. A government which is weak cannot fight corruption because he will not in any way be propelled to take good action.
  • Drug Trafficking: Drug use is often practiced by disaffected youth, who in turn create demand for a drug market that fuels corruption. In countries like the United States, hard drugs are commonly associated with crime among delinquent youths. The country's demand for drugs has allowed cartels in Mexico and Central America to flourish, and the Mexican government is frequently held hostage by the will of powerful drug gangs running supplies into the United States and elsewhere.

How to Stop or Reduce Corruption

Anti-corruption PSA in Ethiopia. "One Rotten Grapefruit . . . (2141752816)" by A. Davey from Where I Live Now: Pacific Northwest - One Rotten Grapefruit . . .Uploaded by Elitre. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0
Anti-corruption PSA in Ethiopia. "One Rotten Grapefruit . . . (2141752816)" by A. Davey from Where I Live Now: Pacific Northwest - One Rotten Grapefruit . . .Uploaded by Elitre. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 | Source

Corruption can be reduced through the following solutions:

  • Employment Creation: The government and powerful individuals should work together to create jobs for the masses. Those countries that lack technological development should invite other countries and private companies to help them build their technological infrastructure. When the masses make money and learn skills as employees of those companies, they can start their own businesses. This will, in turn, create more jobs for the citizens of the country. Governments should encourage skill acquisition programs and employment seminars. The people that gain those skills will develop their own businesses with time and start employing others. Within companies, mentorship programs can ensure that skills and knowledge are passed on to younger employees.
  • Pay Public Employees a Living Wage: It may seem counter-intuitive to pay corrupt employees more, but if police officers and low-level bureaucrats make enough money by working, they won't feel the need to take bribes. In Nigeria, policemen are considered to be the most corrupt institution in the country, according to the 2003 Nigeria Corruption Survey Study. In eight of the nine most corrupt nations in 2013, more than 80% of residents considered the police to be corrupt. Public employees should also undergo anti-corruption training and education, emphasizing the negative effects of corruption.
  • Surveillance: Electronic monitors, computer programs, and other technologies can monitor corruption in government and businesses. In corrupt countries, the use of technology can be preferable to relying on anti-corruption agencies staffed with friends of corrupt governments. The installation of these technologies should be done secretly, without the companies’ awareness, or in a way that makes them impossible to be tampered with.
  • Anti-Corruption Bodies: Each country should have anti-corruption initiatives. At the same time, there should be an international body monitoring corruption around the world without the need to answer to the rich and powerful within corrupt societies. The problem with some anti-corruption bodies is that many of them do not carry out their functions well. Many of them are too weak. Any country with the strong anti-corruption body will win the war against corruption, and international cooperation can enhance domestic efforts.
  • Curbing Drug Intake: Reducing the corruption that results from the drug trade involves the efforts of both the government and its people. The drug trade relies on the demand for hard drugs. Seminars should be held on a regular basis where people will be taught the negative impact of hard drugs. Governments should also sponsor television programs where doctors who have good teaching skills will highlight the disadvantages of hard drugs. In institutions of higher learning, a course on drug use should be integrated into the curriculum. This will help reduce corrupt practices to some extent.


Conclusion/Recommendation

I will like to say this at this point; be the fighter of corruption and do not follow the multitude to indulge in that dirty act. You can start the fight from your family. That everybody in your country is doing it does not mean you have to take part in it. Be the change you want to be attained in your country and others will learn from you. Stay cool and the author is convinced you learned from the topic.

You might have said that your country is one of the most corrupt in the world. Another from the other part of the world might have felt that his country should have been included as the most corrupt because of embezzlement going on among the political class of the country. You may be right in your judgment but the data presented here is the ranking from authorized organization.

Resources for Learning More About Corruption

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    • profile image

      abdu ahmed 3 years ago

      internet service is such important

    • profile image

      Mariam Munawar 3 years ago

      Really very informative. Keep it up!

    • profile image

      zek 3 years ago

      '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''

      its nice one...................,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn

    • Uzochukwu Mike profile image
      Author

      Uzochukw Mike 3 years ago from Oba

      Thanks Zek

    • profile image

      me 3 years ago

      thank for giving this service

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      DEBATERS 2 years ago

      THIS information just saved my life and also the life of two other debaters...We really want to say thank you for your information,,,especially your conclusion.....

      YOURS SINCERELY

      NAMIBIA`S TOP DEBATERS.....................

    • profile image

      Danielle Jones 2 years ago

      If only everbody knew.......

    • profile image

      ankita 2 years ago

      really internate is very important part of everyone....

    • profile image

      Fatima 2 years ago

      Really very informative. Keep it up!

    • Uzochukwu Mike profile image
      Author

      Uzochukw Mike 2 years ago from Oba

      @ Fatima, thanks for the comment

    • profile image

      paulami dey 2 years ago

      Seriously internet helps a lot.. i am a teacher and i need internet a lot.. i have to do projects of my students very often so internet helps me.. recently i have completed a project on corruption & my student got 83% on this..

      I must say internet rocks...

    • Uzochukwu Mike profile image
      Author

      Uzochukw Mike 2 years ago from Oba

      paulami dey, thanks for the comment.

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      rabia 2 years ago

      Good lesson . congratulation

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      Author

      Uzochukw Mike 2 years ago from Oba

      rabia, thanks for the appreciation and comment.

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      A. Nuhu 2 years ago

      What a wonderful and eruditic write up. It's enlightened, keep it up and God bless.

    • Uzochukwu Mike profile image
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      Uzochukw Mike 2 years ago from Oba

      Thanks A. Nuhu for the comment. I pray you keep visiting this site for more unique articles. You can bookmark it.

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      ananya 2 years ago

      woow stuff thanks dude really helpful!!!!

    • Uzochukwu Mike profile image
      Author

      Uzochukw Mike 2 years ago from Oba

      @ Ian and ananya: thanks for the comments and we believe corruption will be reduced one day.

    • peachpurple profile image

      peachy 2 years ago from Home Sweet Home

      corruptions happen in almost all countries in the world, even our country has the same problem too.

    • Uzochukwu Mike profile image
      Author

      Uzochukw Mike 2 years ago from Oba

      Thank you Purple, it is a global challenge.

    • ladyguitarpicker profile image

      stella vadakin 2 years ago from 3460NW 50 St Bell, Fl32619

      A very good and interesting hub with lots of truth. I'm seeing corruption everywhere these days. Stella

    • profile image

      China Abarquez 2 years ago

      I am very surprise to find out that Philippines is not included in the most corrupt countries in Asia. Am i just dreaming? Hahaha. Politics in our country is a business. Those politicians invest millions in their campaign in order to gain billions while serving the government. Oh my, they are actually not serving the government. They are just faking it to gain supporters. Though there are actually serving Filipinos but mostly are corrupt officials who just think of their self.

    • Uzochukwu Mike profile image
      Author

      Uzochukw Mike 2 years ago from Oba

      The truth is that countries whose citizens think they are the most corrupt do not know that there are others who are more corrupt than theirs.

      Hence, the ranking presented is according to the Transparency International. As you think Philipine is one of the most corrupt in Asia, so do people in Nigeria think they are the most corrupt in the world but not.

    • profile image

      China Abarquez 2 years ago

      I think we, the citizens think based on what we see, what is the performance of our country and what are the issues surrounding our government. This might be a good news for my fellow Filipinos that we are not included in the 10 most corrupt. But hopefully, we can feel it.

      As of now, Statements of Assets and Liabilities isn't approve so there's no way the we will know what this politicians did on their government funds. The number of my fellow Filipinos who choose to work outside the Philippines is increasing because they can't find a decent job inside the country. We have the pork barrel scam which is until now don't have any solution.

      If only, those politicians will serve rightfully then I think there will be no more poor countries with higher rate of unemployment than employment.

    • Uzochukwu Mike profile image
      Author

      Uzochukw Mike 2 years ago from Oba

      China, I understand your feelings and you spoke well. The inability of the government to account on how they run their government has been a major problem in both Asia and African Continent.

      For the issue of unemployment, bad government has made it a global problem, but God will see us through.

    • buck3647 profile image

      The Real David Pressler 24 months ago from Planet Earth

    • profile image

      umm Faaiz 23 months ago

      I am so surprise that my country Nigeria is not among corrupt countries, will all the attrocities. This really helped me in my examination. God bless the author, God bless Nigeria. and God bless everyone.

    • Uzochukwu Mike profile image
      Author

      Uzochukw Mike 23 months ago from Oba

      Thanks for the comment. The information given is what the standard body has as its ranking.

    • buck3647 profile image

      The Real David Pressler 23 months ago from Planet Earth

      Florida Governor Scott says Guilt without evidence is OK preventing the development of an Off the Grid Aqua Farm Arcadia, Florida! My Story

      http://hub.me/ajw86

    • Uzochukwu Mike profile image
      Author

      Uzochukw Mike 23 months ago from Oba

      Thanks Buck for the information.

    • buck3647 profile image

      The Real David Pressler 23 months ago from Planet Earth

      For us folks who cannot afford legal representation Only Social Media is the method to announce to the public the vices of the world. No longer is there concealment of lies. When Governor Scott,Commissioner Putnam,Director of Aquaculture Knickerbocker,Inspector General Sears, Counsels Hall & Costigan declare guilt without evidence they violated the Constitution of the United States and formed a conspiracy to obstruct justice. Did you know that? Just a reminder

    • Uzochukwu Mike profile image
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      Uzochukw Mike 23 months ago from Oba

      You are right. Social media and article writing is how we pass the information on.

    • profile image

      MMESOMA ODINAKA 20 months ago

      THANK U

    • Uzochukwu Mike profile image
      Author

      Uzochukw Mike 20 months ago from Oba

      You are welcome Odinaka.

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      Adegoke Babatunde 19 months ago

      Waoh,,,,,,,, this is quite educative and helpful,,,,, infact I did my assignment very easily using this valuable and quite expatiative article,,,,,, Kudoz to U guyz,,,, more power to Ur Elbow**

    • Uzochukwu Mike profile image
      Author

      Uzochukw Mike 19 months ago from Oba

      Thanks Babatunde for the great compliment.

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      barry smith 18 months ago

      yes that's true ,to make changes of cause something must be reveal within us.

    • profile image

      keerthi 17 months ago

      I wonder if India is not present.

    • buck3647 profile image

      The Real David Pressler 17 months ago from Planet Earth

      FLORIDA how many lies does it take to make a CONSPIRACY?

      https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/what-constitutes-co...

    • profile image

      Babaalaro 17 months ago

      Thank for this nice work

    • Uzochukwu Mike profile image
      Author

      Uzochukw Mike 17 months ago from Oba

      I appreciate your appreciation Babaalaro.

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      musqan 15 months ago

      very helpful this topics.. I did my assignment very easily.. causes are excellent.. welldone work..

    • Uzochukwu Mike profile image
      Author

      Uzochukw Mike 15 months ago from Oba

      Thanks Musquan. Am happy the article answers the question needed to complete your assignment.

    • profile image

      hasan Mahmud 15 months ago

      very god..........make several articles on the others common problems of the developing countries........like unemployment,dowry,eveteasing,etc...............

    • Uzochukwu Mike profile image
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      Uzochukw Mike 15 months ago from Oba

      Thanks Hasan for appreciating my written work. I have about two topics on unemployment on this site. The other two topics I will look into later.

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      Ms Lupakisyo Mwakyolile 14 months ago

      Congrats for the nice article! I've just used as a reference for my students' lesson about corruption!

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      Uzochukw Mike 14 months ago from Oba

      Thanks for popularizing my article by using it as one of your references. Keep reading and keep getting informed.

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      David 13 months ago

      How can I site this for a report? It's a great article and I'd love to use it!

      Should I just use your name and the site?

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      Uzochukw Mike 13 months ago from Oba

      Thanks for the comment David. Use my name as Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike and the site as Hubpages Inc (Publication platform). Thanks once again.

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      Uzochukw Mike 13 months ago from Oba

      In addition, the article was published on August 23, 2013. Success.

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      CHRIS57 13 months ago from Northern Germany

      Stumbled over your article.

      Impressive and well written, my compliments.

      May i add a few remarks:

      1. In the context of corruption another expression should be named: Lobbyism. Hides behind so called group interests and directly targets politics and administration, but actually does the same as corruption.

      2. The larger and the better organized a nation is, the more corruption is replaced by lobbyism. It is much more effective to promote favourable laws than to bribe individuals to outrun opponents.

      3. Corruption or lobbyism are not totally bad. They take the job of oil or grease in a gearbox (economy). Little dose useage makes the engine run smoothly and enables fast adaptions and transitions. High dose however will overheat and damage gearbox and engine severely.

      4. As with everything in nature, technology or economy there is an optimum. A meter to determine the optimum may be the competitiveness of an economy. So Denmark may have little corruption but not necessarily show best competitivity or productivity.

      At the end it is important how much economic output you get from how little input. MQL = minimal quantity lubrication may help... just saying.

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      Uzochukw Mike 12 months ago from Oba

      Thanks Chris for your ideas and contributions.

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      nidal drablia algeria 4 months ago

      is very important and think you for information

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      Uzochukw Mike 4 months ago from Oba

      Nidal Drablia Algeria, thanks so much for your comment.

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      Uzochukw Mike 4 months ago from Oba

      @ Blessing, getting ride of corruption in school is quite a different topic. You can click on my name "Uzochukwu Mike" and you will be landed on my homepage through which you can get my phone number and my Facebook link. We can talk about the topic through any of the channels.

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      fatty 3 months ago

      good job

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      Uzochukw Mike 3 months ago from Oba

      Fatty, thanks for the compliment.

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      Aj 2 months ago

      nice resource worth reading

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      Kigbo Victor 4 weeks ago

      Well done Sir, indeed you did a great work here.

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      Frex z 6 days ago

      If this website was not available I was gone thank you

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      Uzochukw Mike 5 days ago from Oba

      Frex z, I am happy you found my written article useful. Thanks.

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