Angela has been writing on issues in Africa for the Perspective Africa magazine for the past year
The Emergence of PTSD
PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) has been recognised in the Rwanda genocide victims just four years after the war officially ended. In April 1997 the Nyanza secondary school saw more than 30 of their students develop acute emotional reactions such as agitation, seeing vivid images of genocide and weeping for over two days after attending the reburial ceremony of the remains of their relatives who died in 1994. Another incident occurred in Nyamata at a similar memorial service, an investigation after the event suggested mass hysteria.
Shortly after, a study was published detailing the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Rwanda in relation to the period of genocide (Hagengimana,1997). This study detailed victims suffering from acute grief reaction, depression and PTSD directly associated with experiencing isolation, the helpless witnessing of atrocities, rape and loss of family.
Up to this point the growing burden of mental illness in Rwanda remained unknown and untreated for the most part. The culture and its language lacked words for depressive and anxiety syndromes. The 1994 Civil War forced the emergence of the word ihahamaka to represent PTSD, this means ‘breathless with frequent war’.
The culture and its language lacked words for depressive and anxiety syndromes
Recognising Transgenerational Trauma
More recently psychologists have widened their scope to include people who weren’t around at the time particularly to the children of the traumatised. In Rwanda last year psychologists found youth between the age range 15-35 suffering from genocide trauma. Those aged 35 were only 14 at the time of the war, however those aged 15 were not born yet but still show symptoms and appear to suffer through hereditary and environmental factors.
“Those who were not yet born, though they never saw or experienced the physical pain or mental effect of the Genocide, have grown in a traumatized society, thus fall in the same category. Someone born after the Genocide can experience or acquire the trauma from parents, relatives, neighbors and generally people that surround them because he/she is in a world where they see trauma thereby developing their own imagination of the Genocide after observing their parents in unusual conditions,” says Dr. Yvonne Kaitenshonga.
There is some precedence for this phenomenon where transgenerational trauma has occurred in children living in countries like Israel, Vietnam, Cambodia and Armenia. In these places children born by survivors have been observed to experience and inherit trauma from their parents. Potential evidence has even appeared to show in the children’s DNA with research showing Holocaust survivors and their children with lower cortisol levels than Jewish families who were outside of Europe during the war. Low cortisol levels can cause depression, social anxiety and emotional hypersensitivity due to Cortisol being the key hormone that helps humans cope with stress.
Treatment In Rwanda
People suffering from PTSD and those suffering from intergenerational trauma can be helped to lead a normal life. However, the treatment is time-consuming and expensive as experts warn against chemical medication.
“The healing comes better through psychological and social treatment through conversation and counselling which allow the victim speak their heart out, crying or other forms of relief as one speaks about the tragic history,” Dr. Kaitenshonga reports.
“Post-traumatic stress disorder is triggered by the anxiety and fear of events that happened before and could be only handled psychologically not like other kinds of mental disorders like depression and psychosis that can be healed through medicines,” says Dr. Jean Damascene Iyamuremye.
Unfortunately, still to this day Rwanda remains ill-equipped to effectively treat psychological disorders. In 2008, over 10 years after the genocide, there were only three practicing psychologists in all of Rwanda. Since then the official health institutions and policies have developed gradually in an attempt to respond to the needs of the Rwandans suffering from PTSD and other psychological traumas but consistent adequate counselling and treatment for PTSD has yet to be fully achieved provoking the question whether the children suffering from transgenerational trauma can be helped in time.
Hutu extremists carefully planned, then led, the murder of some 800,000 fellow Rwandans, mostly Tutsi
10 Facts about the Rwanda Genocide
1. It took place between two ethnic groups populating Rwanda: the Hutus and the Tutsis
2. On April 6, 1994, a plane carrying President Habyarimana, a Hutu, was shot down. Immediately after that, violence ensued.
3. Between April and June 1994 (~100 days), an estimated 800,000 Rwandans were killed.
4. Soldiers and police officers encouraged ordinary citizens to take part in the killings. Hutu civilians, forced by military personnel, were to murder their neighbors, friends, and even relatives.
5. An estimated 200,000 people participated in the perpetration of the genocide.
6. Corpses in the countryside were covered with banana leaves to screen them from aerial photography
7. During this period, more than 6 men, women and children were murdered every minute of every hour of every day
8. Between 250,000 and 500,000 women were raped during the 100 days of genocide. As a result of this rape, up to 20,000 children were born from these women.
9. More than 67% of women who were raped during the genocide were infected with HIV and AIDS. In many cases, this resulted from a systematic and planned use of rape by HIV+ men as a weapon of genocide.
10. The Hutus used mostly machetes, knives and clubs in their deadly assault on the Tutsis. Bullets were too expensive to use to murder all the people. Some Tutsis were given the option of buying a bullet so that their death would be quicker and less painful.
This content reflects the personal opinions of the author. It is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and should not be substituted for impartial fact or advice in legal, political, or personal matters.
Mona Sabalones Gonzalez from Philippines on July 06, 2017:
I had heard of Rwanda but this is the first article I've read about it. It is so brutal and sad. I hope the country is doing well now.