Mandela and Winnie in a victory March when he left Pollsmoor Prison
Mandela: The Man In Our Eyes
Our Manhood - Our first African President Of Mzantsi(South Africa)
Nelson Rolihlahla "Tata' Mandela passed away today on the 5th of December, 2013, peacefully. He has now joined the pantheon of our erstwhile, sterling and dedicated giants of our struggle alongside leaders like Shaka, Kreli, Moshweshwe, Hints, Faku, Manthatisi, Moselekatse(Mzilikazi), Sekhukhuni, Sekonyela, Bambata, Makana, Luthuli, Jabavu, Mda, Sofasoke Mpanza, Sobukwe, Biko, Tiro, and many others too many to list here.
Mandela did not not stand over and above all the leaders that were mentioned above, but incorporated all what they stood for and fought for the the people of Mzantsi. Built-in into his leadership make-up was a duality that characterized him throughout his life. For us the African people Of Mzantsi, he was known as Mandela(before he went was incarcerated for 27 years in Robben Island.
To the world, he was the best of what we as the people of Mzantsi could offer of the best in all of us. The world loved and respected him for all the qualities befitting a "World King". To us in Mzantsi, he was the best Chief/King and hope of our fears, dread and freedom. We could harldly boast to the the Boers about him, but we, as the kids of the time, knew him to be the leader that was banned from our lives for close to three decades.
He was a cultural Father(Tata) and bearer of our traditions and Customs and an intellectual figure in our hearts and minds that could not be locked up(even though he was exiled into some remote Island off the coast of South Africa); to the world he was an untouchable spirit with true grit, determination and sage ways of handling his detractors and speeches and his incarcerated physical being. Even though a dark and seemingly permanent cloud hung over our heads during his absence, his fighting for us the Africans of Mzantsi was constant and permanent Ray and Light, Hope, Inspiration, Determination, Intelligence , Culture and Customary Continuity, plus Freedom.
There has been much written and said about Mandela, from the days of his struggles in South Africa, up to the time of his life in Orlando West, South Africa, to the time when the CIA helped to get him captured and his being sentenced to Robben Island where he survived for 27 years breaking stones in a quarry nearby bis cell. In Robben Island, he kept the spirits of those arrested with him alive and hopeful, and he doled out the idea that they were going to be free one day.
When the Boers wanted to dehumanize and make us less of men and women, the very thought that he was alive in some teeny-weenie cell, and not dead, meant that we were alive. He spent 18 of his 27 years on Robben Island, and the rest in the prison now known as Pollsmoor. He personified our Manhood and Womanhood. We never saw his pictures nor heard any of his speeches throughout his life that he was jailed.
Even his gaolers got to respect the man and his dignified comportment even under stressful prison condition where they, the Boers, wanted to break him down and make him feel like he was a "boy". This "Boy" tagging of African men in South Africa, was one of the many ways the Apartheid ensured our permanent enslavement and breakdown. We never knew Mandela, and he lived in the adjacent Township of the one I lived in in Orlando West. His Township was called Orlando West, and his house was one and the same as the rest(three roomed house) that Apartheid had built for us.
We grew up with his daughters who had this unusual stigma that they were the children of Mandela, but we partied with them all over the township gigs and festivals. In many cases, they lived in fear, but, we, and most of my cohorts, who were the cadre of the 1976 Student Rebellion of Soweto(see my Hub on this era), did not give a rats-ass as to the Securitas(BOSS-Beureau Of State Security) who were a constant thorn on Winnie and her children's side, and we just kept a normal relationship with them. We knew the risks involved, but we were the fearless fighters who eventually brought the rule of Apartheid and down to its knees.
What Madela meant to us as the Africans of Mzantsi, is what this whole Hub is going to be about. As I have stated at the beginning, there has been much written about him and that is still going to be written about Mandela, but, I have chosen to take tact of talking about Mandela as we grew and got to know, talk, albeit in hush-hush tone, lest the goons of BOSS overheard us, in our various communities throughout Soweto, and the whole of South Africa. But, before I talk about the Mandela that we as Africans knew, I would like to give a quick history/story timeline of the man we got to know and call "Tata", after he was released from Prison. He was truly our African Manhood and Leader/First African President Of South Africa.
Nelson Mandela - A Timeline of his life
NELSON Mandela's passion and commitment to the freedom of his people meant a life of struggle and determination - and inspired millions around the world.
July 18- Rolihlahla Mandela (later Nelson) is born at Mvezo in the Transkei, South Africa. His isiXhosa name, given by his father, formally means “pulling the branch of a tree”, but colloquially means “troublemaker”. His family is descended from Thembu royalty.
Attends a local primary mission school near Qunu, where he is given the name ‘Nelson’ by a teacher.
His father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa, dies and Thembu paramount chief Jongintaba Dalindyebo becomes his guardian.
Aged 16, he undergoes initiation, the traditional Xhosa rite of passage into manhood. He is given the name Dalibhunga, which means “creator or founder of the council” or “convenor of the dialogue”. Attends Clarkebury Boarding Institute in Engcobo.
Meets his lifelong friend Oliver Tambo, who later becomes president of the African National Congress (ANC).
Attends Healdtown, the Wesleyan College at Fort Beaufort. It is here that Mandela learns boxing, a sport he becomes passionate about.
Enrols at the University College of Fort Hare, in Alice to study for a Bachelor of Arts. Elected to the Student representative Council.
Expelled from University College for political activism. Continues his studies by correspondence.
Escapes an arranged marriage by running away to Johannesburg, where he becomes a mine night watchman. Starts articles at the law firm Witkin, Sidelsky & Eidelman. Meets Walter Sisulu, who later becomes a senior ANC figure.
Completes his BA through the University of South Africa.
Begins to attend ANC meetings informally.
Graduates with BA from Fort Hare. Enrols for a Bachelor of Law at Wits University.
Co-founds the ANC Youth League. Marries Evelyn Ntoko Mase, with whom he has four children: Thembekile (1945); Makaziwe (1947, dies aged nine months); Makgatho (1950) and Makaziwe (1954).
Elected national secretary of the ANC Youth League, which gradually gains power of the ANC. Three years later, he is elected president of the league.
The Defiance Campaign – large-scale demonstrations which flout apartheid laws – begins. Mandela is charged for violating the Suppression of Communism Act. He is sentenced to nine months imprisonment with hard labour, suspended for two years. Opens South Africa’s first black law firm with Oliver Tambo.
The Congress of the People, which consolidated anti-apartheid forces in South Africa, adopts the Freedom Charter, a vision for a united, non-racial and democratic South Africa.
The government arrests 156 people, including Mandela and most of the ANC executive, in response to the Freedom Charter, and puts them on trial for treason. After a five-year trial, all are acquitted.
Divorces Evelyn Mase. Marries Nomzamo Winnie Madikizela. They have two daughters: Zenani (1959) and Zindzi (1960).
March 21 - At least 69 people are killed, and between 150 and 300 injured, in Sharpeville when police open fire on demonstrator protesting against laws which require blacks to carry a pass whenever thy are outside designated areas. The incident becomes know as the Sharpeville Massacre and signals the beginning of armed resistance against apartheid.
March 30 - In the wake of the Sharpeville Massacre, a State of Emergency is imposed and 18,000 people detained. Among them is Nelson Mandela. A week later, the ANC is banned.
The Treason Trial collapses and Mandela goes underground. He helps form the Umkhonto weSizwe (MK), the armed wing of the now-banned ANC.
January 11 - Leaves South Africa for military training and to garner support for the ANC.
August 5 - Arrested near Howick in KwaZulu-Natal. Sentenced to five years for incitement and leaving the country illegally.
Sent to prison on Robben Island. Brought back to Pretoria in July for the Rivonia sabotage trial with nine others after the MK headquarters are discovered.
Mandela is convicted and sentenced to life in prison. He is held at Robben Island, and later at Pollsmoor Prison.
Mandela’s son Thembekile dies in a car accident. Mandela is not permitted to go to his funeral.
Rejects South African President P.W. Botha’s offer to release him if he renounces violence. Has prostate surgery.
December 7 - Is transferred to Victor Verster Prison where he spends the last 14 months of his imprisonment.
February 2 - In the wake of sanctions and unrest, the ANC is “unbanned”, first by a people’s proclamation, then by the government under President de Klerk.
February 11 - Mandela is released from prison after 27 years. Holding the hand of wife Winnie, he gives the gathered crowd a victory salute, then travels to Cape Town, where he speaks to a rally of 50,000 people. “Our march to freedom is irreversible," he tells them. Soon after, he is elected deputy president of the ANC.
Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize with F.W. de Klerk "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa."
South Africa’s first democratic elections held. On April 27, at the age of 75, Mandela is permitted to vote for the first time in his life. The date is now celebrated as Freedom Day in South Africa.
May 9 -10
Unanimously elected the first president of a democratic South Africa. “Never, never again will this beautiful land experience the oppression of one by another,” he declares at his inauguration.
Divorces Winnie Mandela after 48 years of marriage.
July 18 - Marries humanitarian and Zimbabwean politician Graça Machel, the wife of the late Mozambican president Samora Machel. The wedding takes place on his 80th birthday.
Steps down after one term as president. "I am the product of Africa and her long-cherished view of rebirth that can now be realised so that all of her children may play in the sun," he says in his final speech.
June 1 - Mandela announces he will step down from public life.
January 6 - Mandela announces his eldest son Makgatho has died of complications from AIDS.
Turns 90, and asks the emerging generation to continue the fight for social justice.
Is formally presented with the FIFA World Cup trophy before it embarks on a tour of South Africa. His great-granddaughter Zenani is killed in a car accident.
Mandela's aids call for a halt to the thousands of requests for autographs, endorsements and interviews so his retirement can be a time for peace and tranquility.
January - Is admitted to hospital with a chest infection
June - Is visited at home by American First Lady Michelle Obama and her daughters Sasha and Malia
February - Spends one night in hospital with abdominal complaint
December - Three-week stay in hospital to treat lung infection and for surgery to extract gallstones.
March 10 - Admitted to hospital for routine, age-related medical check.
March 28 - Re-admitted to hospital with recurrent lung infection.
March 30-31 - Responding to treatment well.
April 1 - Doctors in Pretoria removed pleural fluid from his lungs to ease his breathing
April 7 - Discharged from hospital
May 1 - First photos of Mandela in nine months appear.
(Sources: Nelson Mandela Foundation; africanhistory.about.com; http://www.freedom.co.za/madiba.html; www.anc.org.za; nobelprize.org)
The historical timeline above has been presented here as a shorthand for the readers to get a glimpse to the life and times of Mandela over the decades.
The ANC and The formation of PAC Brief History
In order for us to have a much more better picture of Mandela and his actions and protests in South Africa, we need to look back into the history of events and people/leaders that shaped his leadership. This is when we come across a leader called Pixley ka Seme, who in 1912 had graduated from Columbia in 1912 as a lawyer, and Oxford, was evidently inspired by the NAACP in America, and decided that he wanted to do the same for South Africa.
He came back to Johannesburg to set up his practice, and was rudely brought back to the harsh realities of the lives of Africans, after he had gotten used to life overseas, which had afforded him relative openness. In Johannesburg, the White people required that he carry his pass book everywhere he travelled, and he had to travel third class, and had to step off the pavement into the street in order to allow a White person the run of the sidewalk.
Seme and several black lawyers who had also studied overseas decided to take action. They invited African leaders from allover the country to a big meeting in Bloemfontein. Some of the arrivals were the traditional chiefs, while others were organizers from the small emerging class of African professionals.
"We have discovered," Seme told the assembly, "that in the land of our birth, we Africans were treated as the 'hewers of wood and drawers of water'. The White people of this country have formed what is known as the Union of South Africa-a union in which we have no voice in making of laws and no part in their administration.
"We have called you, therefore, to this conference so that we can together devise ways and means of forming our national unity and defending our rights and privileges." The gathering enthusiastically voted to form an organization that would come to be called the African National Congress. "We felt wonderfully optimistic," one delegate said. To us, freedom was only around the corner."
In actions akin to that of the NAACP, the ANC intellectuals and professionals sought to win improved conditoins for Africans through patient petition and lobbying campaigns. ANC delegations travelled to Britain and to the post-World War I peace conference at Versalles to try to win International support. The organization held itself aloof from the African masses and their actions like the 1919 antipass campaign, the 1943 bus boycott in Johannesburg's Alexander Township,or the big 1946 mineworkers strikes.
In 1944, a new generation of young men, who had recently arrived in Johannesburg, founded the ANC's Youth League. Nelson Mandela, who was of the Xhosa Royalty, and a lawyer, along with Oliver Tambo, a high school science teacher, later took law too, set up their practice in Johannesburg with Mandela.
Walter Sisulu, who was thirty at the time, and few years older than both his compatriots, was working in the mines, and a s kitchen servant, and also in the factories; he was a proud and independent man, and regularly clashed with his White authorities, and in the end set up his own real estate enterprise. Then there was Lembede, who was then their unofficial leader, who was a driven and incandescent intellectual. Lembede was a son of a farm laborer,who had worked himself to death at the age of thirty-three.
The Youth Leaguers argued that the ANC had to become more militant, more involved in nationwide mass protest. They charged the organization with 'regarding itself as a body of gentlemen with clean hands': They demanded a more vigorous movement to resist the National Party, which came to power in 1948 promising to reinforce the existing system of racial domination with the even more stern and comprehensive policy of Apartheid.
In 1949, the Youth Leaguers persuaded the ANC convention to approve their Program of Action, which called for strikes, civil disobedience and noncooperation with any member of the regime's institutions. The younger members also replaced the organization's president-general with a more activist candidatePresident, an Orange Free State Doctor named James Moroka, and they elected their own Walter Sisulu, as secretary General.
The ANC moved toward closer alliances with other groups menaced by the stream of Apartheid legislation issued forth from the Nationalist-dominated Parliament. It cooperated with the Indian Congresses and with sympathetic Whites, including some who had belonged to the Communist Party before the regime outlawed it in 1950.
As mass support for the ANC grew, the movement decided to conduct a Defiance Campaign during the 1952. All over the country, Africans, Indians, and some Whites promised to openly and deliberately break certain Aparthedi statutes. The program of mass nonviolent civil disobedience was clearly in the Ghandhian tradition. Mahatma Ghandhi's own son, Manilal, who had remained in South Africa after his father returned to india, was one of the defiers.
Dr. James Njongwe, an ANC leader in the Eastern Cape, where the Defiance was to begin on June 26, emphasized that only disciplined volunteers who had been enrolled by volunteer-in-chief Nelson Mandela or others should participate in the campaign. Dr. Njongwe asked for people who would "submit to arrest willingly and with gladness in the hearts, knowing that theirs was a fight against malnutrition, high infantile mortality, landlessness, deprivation, humiliation, oppression, and against destruction of family life and faith in Christianity as a way of life."
This movement in South Africa used the "Europeans Only" facilities, remained in the center of the cities after the evening curfew for Africans, and entered the "Group Areas" reserved for other "population groups." People in South Africa and the world watched as the singing volunteers marched and walked into jails. By the end of the year, around eighty-five hundred had submitted to areest. The ANC's membership soared to one hundred thousand.
The Apartheid government struck back harshly. It used the classic definition of Communism in its Suppression of Communism Act to ban fifty-two ANC leaders including Nelson Mandela. The regime also passed new penalties for defiance. So that in the end, civil disobedience, and other trivial offenses, were punishable by up to three or five years imprisonment.
In 1956, there was further crackdown; the Apartheid regime arrested 156 leaders of the ANC and other resistance organizations and put them on trial for treason. The case of the prosecution was so inept and useless that all the defendants were eventually either released or acquitted. And yet, this treason trial dragged on for five years, diverting the energies of key ANC leaders and draining the organization's meager resources.
Albert John Luthuli was ANC's President-general, a deeply religious teacher in his fifties, and a hereditary chief of the Zulus, was deposed by the regime as punishment for him leading the Natal ANC Defiance campaign. Luthuli was an imposing man, vey patient and tolerant even to his adversaries. In 1961, he was recognized for his humanity and courage and the way he led his organization that in the end he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace, and he was the first man in Africa to be honored with the Peace Prize.
So that, throughout the 1950s, the ANC continued to carry out its Defiance campaign by working steadily with the Indian Congresses, the Colored People's Congress, and he Congress of Democrats, composed of a motley crew of White radicals. It was at this time that the people some serious and deep friendships and unity across racial lines, which was in direct contradiction to the philosophy of Apartheid.
Luthuli was asked how he as a Christian could cooperate with the Communists, which over the years had attracted people like Moses Kotane, J.B. Marks, Yusuf Dadoo and Michael Harmel., which had been declared as an illegal party. In his autobiography Luthuli stated: "
"The Congress Stand is this: our primary concern is liberation and we are not going to be side-tracked by ideological clashes and with witch-hunts." He added: "Communists are people, they are among the number of my neighbors, and I will not regard them as less. ... I am confident enough in my Christian faith to believe that I can serve my neighbor best by remaining in his company."
In 1955, the congress Alliance met at Kliptown, a slum area in Soweto, to draw up the Freedom Charter. the Charter declared that 'South Africa belongs to all who live in it, African or European.' It promised to repeal all Apartheid legislation and replace it with one man one vote and guaranteed Human Rights for all. the Charter also called for social welfare measures in education, housing and so forth.
The only section the West regarded as radical was a pledge to 'nationalize the mineral wealth, the banks, and 'monopoly industry.' But these measures with a promise of land reform, remained vague, at best. And it is ironic today that the ANC has contravened all what the Freedom Charter stood for. This is discussed in some of my Hubs that can be found on ixwa.hub.com.
The PAC(Pan Africanist Congress), disputed the Charter's first sentence. They sated that it is bent and designed toward multiracialism, they were opposed to. In their view(PAC) South africa "belonged" to "Africans", who had to "go it alone" in their struggle for liberation. The most not much known leader in the West and world, but very well-known and liked(more than Mandela) inside South Africa, were both Sofasonke Mpanza[The Father Of Modern Soweto] and Robert Sobukwe.
Robert Sobukwe defined an African as:
"Anyone who owes his loyalty to Africa, who is prepared to accept the democratic rule of the African majority. And his followers characterized anyone not African as foreigners but one who was in South Africa to weaken the authenticity of African nationalism and nationalist with alien ideologies that had limited appeal to the African masses."
This is one part that one needs to write a Hub on because this debate is still going on, now, just as furiously and not yet resolved in South Africa today, amongst the African people.
PAC finally broke away from the ANC and formed PAC with its military wing know as "Poqo". They accused the ANC of being too timid, and they pointed out as to how the ANC lost many battles against Apartheid. They stated that it was unable to stop the introduction of Bantu education or to save Sophiatown, an African town west of Johannesburg City, from being leveled and destroyed...
In 1956, 20,000 women marched to Pretoria, and the regime disdainfully ignored their petitions and extended the vicious pass laws to women, too.. The PAC was quick in realizing the dissatisfaction and the action of the masses, and blasted the ANC for its failure to even support the protest women, and was more inclined and well-tuned to the events that were happening north of South Africa in the African continent and, was buoyed by such revolutions, and PAC was more prepared for radical and militant action against the Boers.
In 1960 both organization, ANC and PAC, declared war against the Pass Laws of Apartheid. the problem with PAC, despite it militant tone, they opted for nonviolent approach to their declaration of war against the passes. That is when Sharpeville happened and sixty-nine people were killed.
There was such a reaction that 30,000, in Cape town marched from the African Townships in protest. The Boers sensed that there was a mood of insurrection, and two weeks later the Apartheid regime outlawed the PAC and ANC. Luthuli was banned and restricted to his house.
Mandela and Sobukwe were arrested(A special law was passed specifically for Sobukwe by the Boers and named after him); Mandela was also arrested and sent to Robben Island. Both organizations fled to Exile, and were not able to return until the 1976 student revolution made it possible for the to come back in 1992 - Mandela got released - Sobukwe died alone in his house under house arrest-and the ANC came into power in 1994.
In the latter par of this Hub, I will return to this historical discourse about how it fits into contemporary South Africa today.
Dislodging Apartheid in south Africa
The Price Of Freedom and Hopelessness of Liberation
When Winnie and Mandela walked hand in hand after his release from doing 18 years of hard labor in Robben Island, and the rest in Pollsmoor prison, the African people of Mzantsi were in a delirium. The euphoria was so intoxicating that the African peoples expectations reached fever pitch. There was general disbelief and unmatched and shocking disbelief that eventually apartheid had relented to majority rule. The people ended up Voting on what was called Freedom day, and for three days with the longest celebrations ever seen in the history and memory of the country.
Many people envisioned themselves going to live in the suburbs, getting better jobs, and reaching the nadir of the lives beyond their wildest dreams. If one or anyone who reads this Hub, has ever been interned in a society that created concentration camps called Townships, akin to the Nazi-types in Germany, one can just imagine the feeling of the Africans of South Africa, who after 400+ years of separate development and Apartheid- the spirit of the oppressed was at long last free in the land of their birth. Mandela held more than hope and promise, and after the vote, people watched in aching anticipation for the change to manifest itself in real terms.
The road to this moment had been long in coming, and the people knew that it was now their time, their county and their government that was going to deliver their expectations and that better and good times lay ahead. This event did not just happen from a vacuum. It had been a long and arduous, painful and tearful struggle to get to 1994.
Too many had died, been tortured and chased into exile for this dream of freedom and self governance to be realized. Although the Africans knew that things will never be the same as before the coming of the colonists, the future was pregnant with hope, for them. With possibilities and a chance to be humans in a land where they were the carriers of water and hewers of wood for the betterment of White people. Now it was their turn to be the masters of their own destiny. Mandela was their entrance in the looming 21st century that was just ahead, and it was no more beyond their reach.
On the other hand, there was the return of the exiles who were received with all the hoopla one can muster into one's imagination. The exiles who were spread throughout the world were not so sure that they would be able to return to South Africa; they had been in Exile since the sixties, seventies and eighties. And in their stay in the refugee camps throughout Africa, Europe, Asia and some paltry few in the USA, they suffered from home-sickness, and those in Africa were subjected to murderous raids by the Apartheid regime. Many of them were butchered and murdered without any mercy shown to them by the regime. As for returning home, that was not within their immediate purview.
Those who fled the country into exile after the Sharpeville massacres and mass incarcerations by the Apartheid regime, had suffered devastating defeat in their efforts trying to return to South Africa in the late sixties in what was known as the Wankie Wars. The Rhodesian Smith regime, in concert with the South african Army, killed them off in their efforts to 'Trek" back into South Africa. In Angola, Lesotho, Mozambique. Swaziland, Botswana, Zambia, Malawi, many were living in fear for their lives that the Apartheid murderous defense force incursions into these countries in pursuit and effort to eliminate the ANC exiled African South Africans was relentless and constant.
This was the time when the South African Defense Force was engaged in Wars in Angola, against the MPLA and SWAPO Guerillas. It was at this time that the Forces of Mugabe and Nkomo were engaged in their wars against Smith in Rhodesia(now Zimbabwe). Also, that was the time when Machel overthrew the Portuguese in Mozambique, and we began to see the formation of Renamo, and in Angola, the reactionary Counterrevolutionary Savimbi and his UNITA thugs was reigning terror on the MPLA and the ANC cadres.
The whole part of southern Africa was in turmoil and at War with the Boers of South Africa. Cuba intervened in Angola and in Quito Carvavale, defeated the South African helped by Swapo and the ANC Mkhonto Guerillas. Chester Crocker and Reagan came with what they termed Costructive Engagement, which failed to halt the fall of Apartheid in these wars.
Meanwhile, the ANC people were never at ease whilst all these wars were continuing. Thatcher and the USA called the ANC a terrorist organization and tried to block the sanctions against Apartheid. Disinvestment became the primary weapon hurled against the regime, and the regime of South Africa was becoming even more recalcitrant/belligerent and was dubbed the 'pariah' of the world.
Meanwhile in South Africa, another fight was developing. Workers went on rolling strikes of the 1970s. Black Consciousness was on the rise and their leader, Bantu Steven Biko was ultimately cowardly murdered by the South African police, and this led to a serious turn of events against the Apartheid regime in South Africa.
This then led to the 1976 Soweto Students Revolt, wherein the school children of South Africa stood up against the mighty Apartheid regime using rocks and fire to fight.(See my Hub published called: "African south Africans and June 16th 1976 Revolt: Sad Times, Bad Times - Aluta Kontinua, AMANDLA! POWER!".)
Whist all this was taking place, Mandela was languishing in prison, and the ANC on the defense in Exile. They Youth of African students in South Africa stood up, alone, and faced the Apartheid ogre. This resulted in the crippling and dismantling of the Apartheid regime as we used to know it prior to 1976. This laid ground for the release of Mandela and the coming to power to the ANC in 1994.
A Peek at the results of the 1994 elections in south Africa
Following a series of tense negotiations and years of liberation struggle, the first democratic election was held in South Africa on the 27th April, 1994. This election changed the history of South Africa. It paved the way towards a new democratic dispensation and a new constitution for the country. For the first time all races in the country were going to the polls to vote for a government of their choice. Nineteen political parties participated and twenty-two million people voted. The election took place in a festive atmosphere, contrary to fears of political violence. The African National Congress (AANC) won the election with 62.65 % of the vote. The National Party (NP) received 20.39 %, Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) 10.54 %, Freedom Front (FF) 2.2 %, Democratic Party (DP) 1.7 %, Pan African Congress (PAC) 1.2 % and the African Christian Democratic Party 0.5 %. Although the ANC gained a majority vote, they formed the Government of National Unity, headed by the ANC’s Nelson Mandela) who became the first black President of the country. (South African History Online)
The Day Democracy and Voting Came To South Africa
Victory and Utopia; Distopia and Dysfunction
I will excerpt some thoughts and ideas from an article that was written by B. Makhosezwe Magubane who pointed out that:
On August 18, In a speech to Parliament Mr. Mandela declared:
At the end of the day, the yardstick that we shall all be judged by is one and only one, and that is: are we, through our endeavours here, creating the basis to better the lives of all South Africans? This is not because the people have some subjective expectations fanned during an election campaign. Neither is it because there is a magic wand that they see in the new government. Millions have suffered deprivation for decades and they have the right to seek redress. They fought and voted for change; and change the people of South- Africa must have.
He went on to remind the House: 'We have forged an enduring national consensus on the interim constitution and the broad objectives of reconstruction and development. This consensus is neither an imposition of one party over others, nor a honeymoon premised on fickle whims of a fleeting romance. What brings us together is the overriding commitment to a joint national effort to reconcile our nation and to improve its well being.' He hoped that with the climate of national consensus having been created and the machinery of government in place, it would not be long before the benefits of democracy would begin to be realised.
Mandela inherited a violent society where, according to some estimates, 15,000 people had died in politically motivated factional fighting. In the month leading to the elections, more than 30 people were killed in the East Rand Townships of Thokoza and Voloorus, and in Natal over a hundred were reported dead. On March 28, violence came to downtown Johannesburg, brought by Inkatha followers who marched to Shell House where the ANC has its headquarters. On Sunday, 24 April, a car bomb exploded in downtown Johannesburg, killing 11 people; and destroying buildings in a two square mile area.In his victory speech President Mandela said:
Tomorrow the entire ANC leadership and I will be back at our desks. We are rolling our sleeves to begin tackling the problems our country faces. We ask you all to join us, go back to your jobs in the morning. Lets get South Africa working ... This means creating jobs, building houses, providing education and bringing peace and security to all. This is going to be the acid test of the government of national unity. We have emerged as the majority party on the basis of the program which is contained in the reconstruction and development programme. There we have outlined the steps that we are going to take in order to ensure a better life for all South Africans.
Apartheid did not just mean political exclusion, it was also an economic system of extreme economic exploitation[Slavery]. As a consequence South Africa faces institutionalised inequalities that are deeply rooted. Africans are among the poorest people in the world compared to the white population of the country. The catalogue of economic inequalities is inexhaustible. Padraig O'Malley (1994: 69), a senior associate at the John W. McCornack Institute of Public Affairs at the University of Massachusetts writes that:
South Africa has one of the most unequal distributions of income in the world. Three- quarters of the people receive only 30 percent of the income. Average white incomes are 13 times those of the black labour force; 60 percent of blacks live below the poverty level; 50 percent of the black labour force cannot find jobs in the formal sector of the economy. Inequality between urban and rural blacks is also very great, with up to 4 to 1 differences in income levels. Inequality in the distribution of income is reinforced by inequalities in the distribution of social spending. State spending per capita is five times as much for whites as it is for blacks. White pensions are twice as much as those of blacks, etc..
Then there is the land question, which lies at the heart of all South Africa's problems. The 1913 Land Act gave 13.7 percent of the land to Africans who constitute more than 75 percent of the population. Much of the land in the reserves where Africans are confined, has become degraded through overgrazing and erosion. White farmers, meanwhile, enjoy subsidies, in the form of both credit and tax breaks. Worse still, many white farmers have over-borrowed. In 1993, the Development Bank of Southern Africa put the number of hopelessly indebted farmers at around 3,000, responsible for farming about 4m hectares (10m acres) (cf. The Economist 08.29.94).
The case for radical economic restructuring is undeniable if the process of political transition is to be successful. Speaking at Clark Atlanta University in 1993, President Mandela underlined the fact of African impoverishment:
While providing the rights associated with democracy, our constitution should also create the basis for an expanding floor of entitlements so as to accord every citizen that measure of dignity intrinsic to being human. A democratic constitution must address the issues of poverty, inequality, deprivation and want in accordance with the internationally recognized standards of the indivisibility of human rights. A vote without food, shelter, and health care would be to create the appearance of equality while actual inequality is entrenched. We do not want freedom without bread, nor do we want bread without freedom.
The question is: can a humane society be built on the basis of capitalism? An examination of the political economy of South African capitalism reveals how it was built on the foundations of racial exploitation and oppression. The fact that racism is deeply implicated with class exploitation in the South African political economy raises the ultimate question: can racism be overcome without transcending the structural constraints of capitalism as a system?
In the short term, SA's battle to deal with social demands are geared more than elsewhere, although 'observers of Eastern Europe, Mexico, Brazil or the Korean peninsula know that political risk is not peculiar to Africa'. On the political front the EIU report finds the ANC's aims are 'unrealistic' because 'no serious effort was made to quantify the cost' of the reconstruction programme. Full employment will push the budget into substantial deficit - well over the 6% of gross domestic product agreed with the IMF - and created the long-term risk of dragging SA into a debt trap.
And while there is a general agreement on the need to reduce inequalities in SA, the redistribution has to be done in a way which will not endanger the 'first world economy' or frighten off investments, worsening the capital flight and producing the exodus of domestic skills. At the same time SA cannot afford the luxury of gradual change. The EIU warns of a 'turbulent and difficult period' ahead as the country manages a 'multi-faceted transformation'. Its markets will be open to new competition and technologies while at the same time more broadly diversified exports 'must take off if a medium term balance of payments crisis is avoided'.
In tandem government will force the pace of change in industrial relations, affirmative action, social investment and anti-trust legislation. Corporate structures, culture and strategies have to be re-engineered to deal with the political and economic challenges. 'These ... must be achieved within two to three years' . From this sober assessment of the challenges facing South Africa, it is obvious that in pursuing its objectives, the ANC must have fortitude and the skills to manage internal and external problems. It will not be easy.
Tata and Winnie Embraced and Enveloped by the African Masses
Mandela An His African People Of Mzantsi
This is truly a loss for the people of Mzantsi, that is, the death and passing of one of the most important leaders and men in our history as the people of South Africa. We watched in silence as he began to rule over us, and he spoke many things, and met with every conceivable leader in the world.
When we were children, it was very dangerous to sing the African National Anthem, it was also risking limb and life talking about Mandela or having thoughts about him or having his picture on the wall of ones house. Apartheid effectively made it a crime to even read anything said or written anything about him. There was a total blackout about his existence, yet we knew that he was in gaol in Robben Island.
Just because the Boers made such a serious effort to blank him out of sight and mind, it was the more so they reinforced him our psyche and consciousness. We never learnt or read nor talked about him in our schools or anywhere else-except surreptitiously in the underground with our cohorts.
When he went to Jail in the sixties, some of us were kids in the lower primaries of school. We knew about Verwoerd and we also knew when Tsafendas assassinated him in Parliament-silently we exhaled. We were also at hand to know that one of the Kennedy's came around to our country-and got to know that John F. Kennedy had been assassinated. But we were never allowed to see his(Mandela's) photo nor hear any discussions about him in any for of media or rallies and so on.
So it was, when he came out from prison in Pollsmoor walking with Winnie hand-in-hand, what to us came to mean we were free on that joyous occasion and day. This was one of the most iconic and capturing/alluring picture which erased our nightmares and blanked memories of him and his wife brought back to live in real time.
This, as I have said, talking or deploying picots of Mandela and his wife along with the essay emblems and symbols, was taboo and could get one killed. Now, in 1990, there he was, fist-pumping with his wife, whom we knew to be a vey revolutionary and fist pumping woman(Winnie), especially during the the 1976 students revolts, and now we were seeing it[freedom] live, both of them reassuringly pumping their fists, which to many of us confirmed our power and the future filled with revolutionary fervor and promise.
This was before the Corporate octopuses embraced and swallowed Mandela and kept him away from the people, and we watched in wonder and puzzlement as to what really happened to our leader. This was before the ANC turncoats effectively took the leader off the masses away from view and into the the suburbs of Houghton.
Yes, this was before he left his house in Orlando and moved on upwards and far from the masses that adored him. This, although he still had many who followed him, was to be his fall from grace from the people who posited all the faith, vote and hope in him.
Yes, he made good speeches, delivered good talking points, and made sure certain policies were passed for the benefit of his people, but he soon was gone and out of sight and out of mind, again, from the army of the poor masses in his township and all over the poor enclaves of African South Africans.
People understood that the world wanted to see him since they had helped to fight for his release; they knew that he was to travel all over the world, but they also saw less of him, and when he left and finished his term as the first President, the snobbish Thabo Mbeki took over the reigns which he was less prepared for, and ended being removed in disgrace from the Presidency.
We then had to contend with the hapless Mothlantle as the interim President, then we ended up being stuck with the present buffoon, Zuma, who is just a puppet under remote control from many forces he himself has not been able to fathom. What I am saying is that Mandela was gradually weened away from the people in such a way akin to the ruthless manner he was locked-up in Robben Island by the Apartheid regime.
Our Best; Our Hope; Our Inspiration: Rolihlahla Mandela
The African People's Legit and Just Criticism Of Mandela and the ANC
The Truth And Nothing But the Truth, So Help Me "Dlozi"(Ancestor)
Given that Mandela just past away, and the world is abuzz with his life-story, my responsibility as a historian and a writer who writes Hubs on behalf of the African people of South Africa, I have to write the good and the bad for historical posterity. It is important that as a historian that I record as much of the truth as possible, and let the chips fall where they may. For my part, living with and amongst the Africans of Mzantsi in the Ghetto, there is a lot of consternation and dissatisfaction with the state of the decrepit existence we find ourselves in today.
It is worth noting that the talking points throughout the media at this juncture is about Mandela and his life. My purpose and task is to present the point of view of Africans of South Africa and what they think and how they interacted(if they ever did) with Mandela during his lifetime.
Above I had already presented the view that we, as African people had of Mandela and how we viewed him, or were made to view him and what that meant and how that affected and effected us as a people, was very important. Mandela did not 'free' the Africans of Mzantsi, but it is their sheer bravery and efforts that got him released-he facilitated for their abilities to be able to govern themselves.
When the time to vote for a new government and President, it was the Africans of South Africa who made that possible with the long lines that have become legendary when they first voted the ANC into power. The ANC was the one who chose the President, and in this case, it was a foregone conclusion that Mandela was to become the First African President of a newly created Democratic South Africa.
Although, to his credit, he decided to become a one-time President, he was nonetheless favored and elected with an overwhelming majority of Africa. This type of voting has declined over the years with these election of Mbeki and Zuma, and with the next elections looming in 2014 and especially in 2019, the ANC has seen a reduction in the participation of the voters, and the long lines are no longer the case. But since Mandela left Office, a lot of African people have become disenchanted with the ANC and Mandela too.
For the people to be free as it is purported or stated in their constitution, it is very important that they should be free to voice their displeasure and offer their criticism of anyone, Mandela included. In fact, he too, has noted on one time or another that he really did not do a good job of taking care of his African people. Many people do not live with us nor understand the Africans of South Africa. There is great displeasure and some form of anger to the effect that people are openly stating that Mandela "Sold us out."
Ordinary poor African people are very vocal and the Mandela allure has lost is luster amongst them. They see his children fighting for his accumulated wealth, and the Africans feel that he did much for his children than he did for them and their children. Some of the things that Africans have been saying prior to his death about him and even after he died, is what the world does not really know or records, except in a few occasion, like the one of Winnie below, who, many African South Africans agreed with, and still love her for it.
What many people do not know nor understand about Africans of South Africa is that they hate and dislike quislings, sell-outs and turncoats. That is why when the ANC took over, the Apartheid regime destroyed all its records, and particularly of those who were spying and betraying Africans during their struggle against the Apartheid regime(one can read this account by Ntsebenza and Bell in their Book, "Unfinished Business").
That is why when Winnie told Naipaul that Mandela has betrayed Us, there was a din of fully throttled agreement with her. When she retracted the claim, people knew that she was doing so because the ANC had offered her a seat in Parliament, and all that goes with it for her silence.
We knew that this was the case, but she had already let the cat out of the bag. She had already confirmed and made them aware that Mandela has been brought and he was more interested in the best interest of the White people than that of his people. This claim could not be reversed, and that is why the ANC had acted quickly and silenced Winnie, and we understood the conditions of her silence after all had been said, done and told about Mandela.
The past is still alive in the heads of All Africans who underwent the rigors of Apartheid even up to this day. All these Western talking heads and political wanna-be's really do not get this point. Apartheid lives in our minds and soul. The ANC has sold their struggle and soul for a mere pittance, and the struggle now, since Mandela is gone, is going to continue with much more intensity between the African people of South africa and the ANC. Mandela had acted as a barrier, but now that is gone, as I have stated in my topic above, "Aluta Kontinua-Amandla!" This is what the ANC had always dreaded and feared, and now the time is nigh.
Below is a smattering of the criticism that has been leveled against Mandela, and there is even much more, from the African people themselves, that has not been reported of talked about by the white owned media. So, I pick it up from the point where Nadira reportsand informs us that her interview with Winnie on March revealed what all can read below:
Published: 08 March 2010
My husband and I have just crossed Africa. On the final leg of our journey we had finally come to South Africa - a place that now went hand in hand with the name Mandela.
My husband had been reluctant to come here but then he had followed his instinct and it had brought us to the Soweto door of the mystifying Winnie Mandela, a much celebrated and reviled woman of our times.
Looking out at her garden, I wondered how long we would have to wait to see her. We were in a stronghold of sorts, with high enclosing walls and electronic gates which were controlled from inside a bunker-like guardhouse. There were tall muscular men dressed in black who casually appeared and disappeared.
In the late Eighties, Winnie's thuggish bodyguards, the Mandela United Football Club, terrorized Soweto. Club "captain" was Jerry Richardson, who died in prison last year while serving life for the murder of Stompie Moeketsi, a 14-year-old who was kidnapped with three other boys and beaten in the home where we would soon sit, sipping coffee. Winnie was sentenced to six years for kidnap, which was reduced to a fine on appeal.[By the way, we in Soweto have a very different view of Winnie contradicting the author's point of view and reference above...]
Members of the gang would later testify in the South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission that Winnie had ordered the torture, murder and kidnap of her own people, and even participated directly.[Well, the African jury is still out on this matter]
Winnie used to live, before she was famous, down one of the narrow, congested streets with small brick and iron sheet houses. Soweto is still a predominantly black township: tourists come in buses to gawk at the streets linked to Freedom, Apartheid and Mandela.
Winnie now has an imposing fortress on the hill. The garden is full of trees and well-manicured shrubs. We walked straight into a small cluttered hallway. It was full of the man: Mandela. He was everywhere. Presents, portraits, honorary degrees and letters covering every empty space on the walls.
There was an air of expectancy as we entered. Our fixer had arranged this meeting with Winnie (or Mama Mandela, her township name) through her confidant and admirer. He is a young man in his early forties who is a well-known television presenter here and clearly an ardent devotee.
He sat us down and talked softly about her. The politics of his generation, he said, had been defined by this woman. Her courage, her fire and her sheer stubbornness had made them men. They saw how unafraid she was and the risks and humiliations she was willing to absorb. These humiliations had not ended with Apartheid. She was discarded, demonized and betrayed, he said.
My nerves were playing up: my husband does not like to be kept waiting at the best of times. He is punctilious and has been known to walk away from a delayed meeting, leaving me to deal with the fallout.
It was at that moment she appeared, tall, carefully attired in soft grey, wearing her signature wig. She held Vidia's outstretched hand and asked him to sit next to her. She flashed a smile in my direction. The air was electrified by her presence.
I did what was expected of me. I asked her if she was happy with the way things had panned out in South Africa. Winnie looked at my husband. Did he wish for the truth? She had heard of him. He pursued the truth or the closest he could get to it.
No, she was not happy. And she had her reasons. "I kept the movement alive," she began. "You have been in the township. You have seen how bleak it still is. Well, it was here where we flung the first stone. It was here where we shed so much blood. Nothing could have been achieved without the sacrifice of the people. Black[African] people."
She looked at Vidia expecting another question. He said nothing, but his dark hooded eyes shone and she carried on with her eyes firmly locked onto his face. "The ANC was in exile. The entire leadership was on the run or in jail. And there was no one to remind these people, African people, of the horror of their daily reality; when something so abnormal as apartheid becomes a daily reality. It was our reality. And four generations had lived with it - as non-people."
As she spoke, I looked at her thinking she was, at 73, as her reputation promised, quite extraordinary. The ANC had needed this passionate revolutionary. Without her, the fire would have been so easily extinguished and she had used everything and anything to stoke it. While some still refer to her as Mother of the Nation, she is decried by many[some?] because of her links to the Stompie murder and other violent crimes during the apartheid era, and a conviction for fraud.
"Were you not afraid?" I asked instinctively, but then I regretted this foolish query.
She looked towards my chair. Her grey glasses focused on my face. "Yes, I was afraid in the beginning. But then there is only so much they can do to you. After that it is only death. They can only kill you, and as you see, I am still here."
I knew that the Apartheid enforcers had done everything in their power to break this woman. She had suffered every indignity a person could bear. They had picked her up in the night and placed her under house arrest in Brandfort, a border town in Orange Free State, 300 miles from Soweto. "It was exile," she said, "when everything else had failed."
At this remote outpost, where she spent nine years, she had recruited young men for the party. "Right under their noses," she said to Vidia, laughing with the memory of it. "The only worry or pain I had was for my daughters. Never really knowing what was happening to them. I feel they have really suffered in all this. Not me or Mandela," she said.
Her two young daughters had never quite understood what was really happening. Bad men went to prison. Their father was in prison but he was not bad. "That anguish was unbearable for me as a mother, not knowing how my children coped when they held me in long solitary confinement."
Zenani, now 51, and Zindzi, 50, remain very much in the background, having no wish to enter politics themselves, Winnie said. Nelson Mandela is no longer "accessible" to his daughters and they have to get through much red tape just to speak to their father, she told us.
Winnie brought up his name very casually, as if it was of no real value to her: not any more.
"This name Mandela is an albatross around the necks of my family. You all must realize that Mandela was not the only man who suffered. There were many others, hundreds who languished in prison and died. Many unsung and unknown heroes of the struggle, and there were others in the leadership too, like poor Steve Biko, who died of the beatings, horribly all alone. Mandela did go to prison and he went in there as a burning young revolutionary. But look what came out," she said, looking to the writer. He said nothing but listened.
It is hard to knock a living legend. Only a wife, a lover or a mistress has that privilege. Only they are privy to the intimate inner man, I thought.
"Mandela let us down. He agreed to a bad deal for the Africans. Economically, we are still on the outside. The economy is very much 'white'. It has a few token Africans, but so many who gave their life in the struggle have died unrewarded."
She was pained. Her uncreased brown face had lost the softness.
"I cannot forgive him for going to receive the Nobel [Peace Prize in 1993] with his jailer [FW] de Klerk. Hand in hand they went. Do you think de Klerk released him from the goodness of his heart? He had to. The times dictated it, the world had changed, and our struggle was not a flash in the pan, it was bloody to say the least and we had given rivers of blood. I had kept it alive with every means at my disposal".
We could believe that. The world-famous images flashed before our eyes and I am sure hers. The burning tires - Winnie endorsed the necklacing of collaborators in a speech in 1985 ("with our boxes of matches and our necklaces we shall liberate this country") - the stoning, the bullets, the terrible deaths of "informers". Her often bloodthirsty rhetoric has marred her reputation.
"Look at this Truth and Reconciliation charade. He should never have agreed to it." Again her anger was focused on Mandela. "What good does the truth do? How does it help anyone to know where and how their loved ones were killed or buried? That Bishop Tutu who turned it all into a religious circus came here," she said pointing to an empty chair in the distance.
"He had the cheek to tell me to appear. I told him a few home truths. I told him that he and his other like-minded cretins were only sitting here because of our struggle and ME. Because of the things I and people like me had done to get freedom."
Winnie did appear before the TRC in 1997, which in its report judged her to have been implicated in murders: "The commission finds Mandela herself was responsible for committing such gross violations of human rights."
When begged by Archbishop Desmond Tutu to admit that "things went horribly wrong" and apologize, Winnie finally said sorry to Stompie's mother and to the family of her former personal doctor whose killing she is alleged to have ordered after he refused to cover up Stompie's murder.
Someone brought in the coffee and we took the offered cups in silence.
"I am not alone. The people of Soweto are still with me. Look what they make him do. The great Mandela. He has no control or say any more. They put that huge statue of him right in the middle of the most affluent "white" area of Johannesburg. Not here where we spilled our blood and where it all started. Mandela is now a corporate foundation. He is wheeled out globally to collect the money and he is content doing that. The ANC have effectively sidelined him but they keep him as a figurehead for the sake of appearance."
The eyes behind the grey tinted glasses were fiery with anger. It was an economic betrayal, she was saying, nothing had changed for the Africcans, except that apartheid had officially gone. As she spoke of betrayal she inadvertently looked at a portrait of Mandela.
I looked at Winnie. Maybe she did not know when to stop. Maybe that is the bane of a revolutionary: they gather such momentum that he or she can't stop. I saw that although her trials and tribulations had been recorded, the scars on the inner, most secret part of her spirit tormented her.
But for Winnie the deaths, the burning tires around the necks of the informers and her own Faustian pacts perhaps made Mandela and his vaunted wisdom look like feeble compromises from a feeble man. No one could expect him to protect her or his children from his 27-year incarceration but now he was out he had wanted peace. He had longings, perhaps scars in the mind, fears and perhaps even wisdom that she could not match or return.
The rumor rife in South Africa was that she could not abide him or touch him during their two-year attempt to salvage the marriage after his release in 1990. It was all too sad. And though he had been prepared to forgive the past, his wife's affairs while he was in prison, it had not worked. They divorced in 1996, having spent only five of their 38 married years together. Her anger was a mighty liability and her defiance was too awful for words.
"I am not sorry. I will never be sorry. I would do everything I did again if I had to. Everything." She paused.
I thought of the terrible shadow of the murder of Stompie. Winnie had flung the stone that had cracked the one-way mirror of apartheid. The "interrogators", the compromisers, were now all unmasked and for what?
"You know, sometimes I think we had not thought it all out. There was no planning from our side. How could we? We were badly educated and the leadership does not acknowledge that. Maybe we have to go back to the drawing board and see where it all went wrong."
This was Winnie the politician. This was the phoenix. Publicly, the ANC leadership, who made her a minister in the first post-apartheid government in 1994 and welcomed her back subsequently, distanced themselves from her amid allegations of corruption (in 2003, she was convicted of fraud and given a suspended prison sentence). But for the masses, she spoke their language and remains popular with those who feel their government hasn't done enough.
We could see why the ANC had needed this obdurate[Strong?] woman. She was bold and had an idea of her worth. She was the perfect mistress for the ANC in the bad times but then she became dangerous.
As we stood up to leave, we saw a photograph of a young Winnie looking wistfully into the camera. She was ravishingly beautiful and Mandela had sought her. But the battle was over. She had played her part. It was over. She had been sidelined and discarded, but since the freedom had not brought the promised dream for the vast black population, she would continue to play her hand in politics. Of that I was sure. She was still a woman who could reflect the dangerous part of a man's dream, whatever it may be.
"When I was born my mother was very disappointed. She wanted a son. I knew that from a very early age. So I was a tomboy. I wanted to be a doctor at some point and I was always bringing home strays from school. People who were too poor to pay fees or have food. My parents never rebuked me or told me that they were hard-pressed, too."
She lit up talking of her past and of early memories that had nothing to do with the struggle. And then she suddenly turned towards Vidia and said: "But when I am alone I cannot help but think of the past. The past is still alive in here. In my head." She pointed to the brain.
Was it all nothing but a great loss? I wanted to know. Part of me ached for her. As a woman I felt her great transgressions and the pain. I wanted to tell her that if I had been Mandela I would have forgiven her but I lacked the courage. What would Vidia say to me if I did?
He was saying goodbye. My eyes were filling. Instinctively she turned and looked into me and her eyes softened. She walked towards me and pulled me into her embrace. "I know what you want to say," she whispered into my ear, "and for that I am grateful."
One other thing about Winnie which is no more talked about so much is her incarceration in Brandford, away from her children, her torture by the regime and constant harassment, which she withstood, and we the African people saw that and stood with her. As to her indiscretions, those do not take much away from how she waged her struggle against the minions of BOSS for us.
If she can be accused for the murder of Stompie, we, as the Africans of South Africa, as I have stated above, have a low intolerance for 'Sell-outs," quislings," "scoundrels,' and turncoats," even if these happen to be Mandela/Madiba Himself. And Winnie was right, and she knew it too, we, the people of Soweto are still with her, even today.
What Winnie Said about the ANC being in exile and far from the bleak Township that Soweto is, is true. She spoke her truth unflinchingly, and we loved her for that.
We also can relate to and know/understand Winnie's Criticism when she points outs out that:
Winnie’s broadside against her former husband had to do with money. According to the Evening Standard interview, she opined that “[Nelson] Mandela let us down. He agreed to a bad deal for the Africans. Economically, we are still on the outside. The economy is very much ‘white.’ It has a few token blacks, but so many who gave their life in the struggle have died unrewarded … . Look what they make him do. The great Mandela … .
They put that huge statue of him right in the middle of the most affluent ‘white’ area of Johannesburg. Not here where we spilled our blood and where it all started. Mandela is now like a corporate foundation. He is wheeled out globally to collect the money and he is content doing that.”
Quick Response to some Criticisms
Many White writers and other ethnic groups who pretend to be our spokes-people write all what they think is wrong think Winnie as demonstrated below, and I reposed just as immediately as they put down their warped and skewed perceptions of Winnie and our reality as Africans of South Africa
We also know that Winnie is always expensively dressed, riding in limousines and surrounded by scores of bodyguards(and who wouldn't be in this messed up country today with her stature) has not felt the pangs of poverty in a very long time(and why should she, as this sentence emanates from her detractors).
Let us also ignore that her rise to riches(and as a people here in Mzantsi, (we have seen this culture in everyone that is in government and private sector-so nothing is new here) including a conviction for fraud and theft in 2002(by the way, this has become the new normal in South Africa, if she did it, all are doing it) - including Mandela himself) was not without controversy.
Let us, instead, turn to her claim that the 1994 constitutional settlement was “a bad deal for the Africans.” This then to us, is the was and nightmarish wretched reality we are living with and facing, and since Mandela is now with the ancestors, that is why I still say, Aluta Kontinua. As for Sis Winnie, with all her faults and detractors, she speaks on behalf of us the underlings and oppressed-she is spot-on-that is why we love her here in Mzatnsi.
There can be no doubt that had the insane and immoral apartheid legislation never seen the light of day, the average black South African would be richer today. Unfortunately, the labor legislation that was first instituted in the 1920s as a result of political pressure from communist-dominated white trade unions preserved that many of the good jobs for the whites.
That said, a minority of whites opposed apartheid and the corporate bosses, whose labor costs were kept artificially high, tried to undermine it — something that was recognized and resented by Apartheid prime ministers from D.F. Malan to B.J. Vorster.
Winnie’s attempt to divide the economy (and the country) into, well, Africans and whites, ignores many whites who succeeded through business acumen and hard work — not political favoritism."
Well, this writer forgot, conveniently to state that the hard work of these Whites was through the cheap and slave labor and exploitation of Africans. No White people can lay claim to their hard work, which has been premised on our enslavement, exploitation even up to this day.This is the falseness of the claim of these liberal Whites/and other ethnicities which Biko detested and railed against so much.
A more serious problem is that Winnie, a member of the ANC’s National Executive Committee, appears to be challenging the 1994 constitutional settlement that allowed for a peaceful transfer of power from the minority to the majority in exchange for strong property rights enforced by a relatively independent judiciary.
Like all negotiated settlements, the South African, this one was full of compromises that made a lot of people uneasy. But, in the absence of a highly unlikely military victory of the ANC’s armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe, over the white regime, compromise was the only game in town(Well, it was the only game in town so long as it was controlled and run by the white people themselves.
This is the part that makes writers like me to begin to write in defense of Africans in South Africans. And these Whites who say this was the only game in town', well, for us as Africans in South Africa, this was a one-sided game, and we were not participating in it. It is that security of property rights — however imperfectly arrived at — that allows the South African economy to enjoy investment and growth for whites and other ethnicities only. Well, for the Africans of South Africa these investments meant perpetual poverty and misery and our African people's enslavement.
Winnie’s views as portrayed in the Naipaul interview are indicative of the increasing radicalization of the South African political scene. Most commentators agree that South Africa’s president Jacob Zuma has taken the government in a more left-wing and dumbed-out direction, with top members of the tripartite alliance — composed of the ANC, the South African Communist Party and the Congress of South African Trade Unions — speaking out in favor of nationalization of farms and of the mining sector. [But this was and has so far been mere talk and futile gesticulations.]
For once the writer came to his sense by stating the paragraph above. The politics of South Africa have long been radicalized, and we have now come to grips with the modus operandi of the ANC, and are now gathering ourselves and are continuing the struggle from whence we left off in the mid-1970s. The ANC has lost favor and following amongst more than half of the African voting polity, thus far.
Also, like I have mentioned it above, Winnie was with Mandela all the time in incarceration in Robben Island, even when he was denied news, she updated him, constantly, and this seems to have been lost or unknown to her detractors. and We, The Africans, knew that:
Mandela was banned from reading newspapers, but his wife provided a link to the outside world.
'She told him of the growing calls for his release and updated him on the fight against apartheid. He himself, Mandela, spoke about tis at various times in his life and communiqués'.
At the same time, Mandela was himself uneasy with the idea of being an icon and he did not escape criticism as an individual and a politician, though much of it was muted by his status as an unassailable symbol of decency and principle.
As president, he failed to craft a lasting formula for overcoming South Africa's biggest post-apartheid problems, including one of the world's widest gaps between rich and poor. In his writings, he pondered the heavy cost to his family of his decision to devote himself to the struggle against apartheid. Well, so did millions undergo even worse than he is pointing out to above.
In his dual lifestyles, Mandela knew that he did not really embrace his african people as well as his children, and he admits to that above. This is not mere criticism of him but a fact of life that has been experienced and lived by his family and his people in various devastating ways.
He had been convicted of treason and sentenced to life imprisonment in 1964 for leading a campaign of sabotage against the government, and sent to the notorious Robben Island prison.
It was forbidden to quote him or publish his photo, yet he and other jailed members of his banned African National Congress were able to smuggle out messages of guidance to the anti-apartheid crusade. And some of these smuggled messages came to Winnie, who was privy to all what was happening to him in Robben Island.
Thousands died, were tortured and were imprisoned in the decades-long struggle against apartheid, so that when Mandela emerged from prison in 1990, smiling and waving to the crowds, the image became an international icon of freedom to rival the fall of the Berlin Wall. This to us, matters, we were part of him, and he was part of us for the 27 years he spent in jail.
After leaving the presidency, he retired from active politics, but remained in the public eye, championing causes such as human rights, world peace and the fight against AIDS. But we, the people of Mzantsi, still had our love and gripes with I'm, and we also noted that he was aging and sickly, so that, the good he did for us outweighed the negatives we saw in the latter part of his life. So,, even today, to us, Winnie remains the stalwart and voice of revolution for many different generations.
Mandela would like to be remembered not as anyone unique or special, but as part of a great team in this country[Mzantsi] that has struggled for many years, for decades and even centuries," he said. "The greatest glory of living lies not in never falling, but in rising every time you fall." Right now we have fallen again, and we are going to heed his sage advice and begin to rise up again
This is true, and as much as we have lost him, his coming into being meant the sacrifice of the lives of many millions, and Winnie was spot-on when she told Nadira about this fact. There is no lie in what Winnie has told Nadira, even though, because of pressure from the ANC, she had to pretend to retract it. Well, It remains the truth and nothing else but the truth to us the wretched of the earth in Mzantsi.
Felix Kessler wrote:
Mandela, who liked listening to classical music while watching the sun set, sought to find common ground with adversaries and emphasized shared goals rather than differences. More than a negotiating strategy, it was a way of life he embraced in prison. There he befriended white guards and later invited them as honored guests to his presidential inauguration.
Their relationship helped keep talks on course over the next four years as violence raged on the streets of South Africa’s townships.
“I went away from that meeting feeling that I was dealing with a man whose integrity I could trust, that I could do business with,” de Klerk said of their first encounter in an interview with PBS radio. De Klerk went on to share the Nobel Peace Prize with Mandela in 1993.
What Kessler was saying in this bit, was what disgusted us as the Africans of South Africa. Some call it a strategy to maintain peace and being diplomatic, well, we call it what it is, selling out, and this will remain part of the debate long after Mandela is buried. Emphasis on the talks about the talks centered around appeasing the white meters and populace, refugees from Africa and whole of Asia and elsewhere, at the expense of ignoring the local and indigenous African population of Mzantsi.
His love for Classical music is not much of a problem, it is his lack of not paying attention to African traditional and customary music that is emblematic and is the bane of the Black/African elites in South Africa, who reckon that loving European Classical music is akin to being a modern and advanced man. This is what we the generation of 1976 see as balderdash and the mind-set/leftover of an Apartheidized and Setlamama of oppressive Apartheid and colonized and miseducated African mind and intellect.
I like the article below by Tara, and will make my comments at the end of it
Coleman, who's the head of investment banking for sub-Saharan Africa, says in the first 14 years of democracy the country's ethnically African middle class more than doubled in size and in the past two decades real GDP per capita increased by 40%, while 10 million South Africans, one out of five, graduated from the lower to the middle and higher income bands.
However, many, including Coleman himself, realize how poverty, inequality, and unemployment continue to haunt this nation of 52 million right in 2017 and beyond.
"Structural unemployment and racial economic inequality continues to plague South Africa. Five million jobs have been added in the past 20 years, but insufficient to lower the overall rate of unemployment. Now 14 million people are working and 7 million are not," said Coleman, who adds that unlocking job opportunities for more South Africans would unleash tremendous growth. I think the stats are larger than reported here by Coleman
According to Rasool 40% of South Africa's population is under the age of 35 and that's where, among black people, unemployment is the highest.
He also says the majority of these youths who grew up under apartheid "are not unemployed, but rather unemployable" due to illiteracy and lack of skills.
Rasool argues many traditional areas of employment, such as agriculture, mining and textiles, are either mechanized or replaced by cheap labor -- suggesting that "in order to move this generation to the next we need to find a way to put the skills and the jobs together." I say that the government should have been in the business of creating local jobs, skill, education, health sports and so on
This is a hurdle that Ann Bernstein, head of CDE, a South African think tank in social and economic development, traces to a lack of education -- even among the teachers who school the young generation that is getting ready to enter the workforce. We know what she is praised to be observing, for us, that is what is our lives, reality and existence-armies of the unemployed Africans, since the days of Apartheid, to now. We meed more ]teachers Colleges, More Nursing Training Schools, we also need more tTechnical Schools and so forth
According to Bernstein around 80% of public schools are dysfunctional and the quality of schooling for the majority of poor people is abysmal. She suggests the key reform is to introduce performance management of principals and teachers. Well, has Bernstein ever lived in our Townships and rural areas? I wonder....
"We cannot allow a situation to continue where many teachers do not come to school on Mondays and Fridays, when they are in class they do not teach much, and where they often are unable to pass tests in the very subject they are supposed to be teaching," said Bernstein. This is from the days of Apartheid to the dysfunctional government of the ANC... She, Bernstein, should stop blaming the victim, which she seems adept at doing here.
Reports indicate that internal corruption remains a problem in South Africa, but the government says it has been clamping down on corrupt officials, with 2,638 officials found guilty of misconduct related to corrupt activities between 1 September 2004 and 31 August 2013. We know and see that it is even worse than reported here in our African enclaves.. That's a fact!
But still government management faces other challenges; "The government needs to be clearer on its priorities, and its approach to regulation and the role of markets, for the country to achieve a coherent approach to the most important issues of job creation, FDI and growth," said Coleman, who believes in the need for collaboration to encourage and facilitate private companies to invest in the country.
Well, as far as we can tell, from an African viewpoint, the government of the ANC is clearly not interested in pursuing this line of thinking and action.. We know that, for we are experiencing the dreadful neglect as an African people of Mzantsi.
But despite the challenges the country faces, Rasool praises what South Africans have accomplished in their short experience with democracy and freedom.
"Twenty years ago, many of these people had no electricity, water and had their lands taken away from them," said Rasool, who praises programs such as accessible healthcare, social security networks and programs that look after young children, elderly, and the disabled... Well, Rasool, that is a welfare state that has inserted a pacifier(dummy) into the mouths and lives of Africans, rendering dependent on the ANC government's handouts.
According to Rasool, 20 years from now, half of South Africa's population will be under the age of 35; and based on the Goldman Sachs report, in the longer term, if the country could raise economic growth from an average 3.3% over the last 20 years to 5% per annum over the next 20 years, it would half formal unemployment over that period.
To Rasool, as long as we depend on Goldman Sachs, if we ever believed that evil Corporation, we know better than before not to be fooled by such high sounding Rich names, and know that our lives are on the tether manipulated by all these companies, foreign of course , to have our best interests at their corporate largesse.
In a country where millions are still taunted by the miserable memories of apartheid, others who have no memories of the past are impatient to move forward in haste.
"The young black people with the memory of apartheid are patient because they know what they have now is infinitely better than the past; but those with no memory from the past have aspirations beyond what's immediately available at hand," said Rasool. He adds that in order to create another 20 years of robust growth for South Africans the two have to meet hand in hand.
Rasool must have been paid hadsomely for spining our misery and suffering. As far as I can tell, he really knows nothing about our youth, our African communities, and all that we have to live through and endure... What a jerk!
Agence France-Presse reports this about the ANC:
Nelson Mandela's African National Congress rose from a local liberation movement to govern Africa's richest country, but scandals and mismanagement have tainted its once glorious image.
Mandela, who died Thursday at 95, leaves behind a party that won equal rights for all South Africans 19 years ago and improved the lives of millions.
But Africa's oldest liberation movement has lost much of its shine amid recurring corruption scandals, rampant inequality and sluggish economic growth.
The party was founded in Bloemfontein as the South African Native National Congress in 1912 to fight against the white-minority government's restrictions on black movement and land ownership.
In 1944, Mandela cofounded the ANC Youth League, which resisted oppressive regulations with a more militant spirit.
The apartheid government took power four years later, intensifying restrictions which it enforced with crushing brutality.
Authorities slapped a ban on the ANC in 1960.
The movement launched an armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation), a year later, and its soldiers underwent training across the world, notably in the Soviet Union.
The United States and Britain branded Mandela and his comrades as "terrorists".
The movement's leaders, including Mandela, were imprisoned in 1964.
After inspiring global outrage over apartheid, the ANC overcame fears of civil war, instead spearheading South Africa's peaceful transformation into a "Rainbow Nation" in 1994.
During its struggle for freedom, the ANC espoused socialist values and counted many communist members.
Once in power, however, the party chose economic liberalism, creating a new generation of "black economic power" that has changed the face of the continent's biggest economy.
The nation's black middle class today counts between two and three million people, and several ANC stalwarts have emerged as business tycoons.
But blurred lines between the worlds of politics and business have sparked repeated scandals -- and stoked discontent among many ordinary South Africans who have yet to reap economic gains from their political freedom.
A former police chief has been jailed for graft and another minister sacked after using public funds to visit a girlfriend jailed in Switzerland.
Meanwhile upgrades worth at least $23 million (17 million euros) to President Jacob Zuma's private rural home have sparked outrage, though he insists no tax money funded the renovations.
Amid renewed economic growth elsewhere in Africa, the continent's largest economy grew 2.5 percent last year -- far below its potential.
Massive discontent at basic services and low salaries sparked the largest and most violent strikes in post-apartheid history.
When thousands downed tools in the key mining sector last year, authorities reacted by sending police, who shot dead 34 people in one day.
The poor still bear the brunt of violent crime, shoddy public hospitals and schools, and 25 percent unemployment, while many live in grim shantytowns just as they did under apartheid.
Zuma, reelected party leader a year ago, has come under fire for placing political allies in influential posts such as the state prosecuting authorities.
Because of the sheer size of the ANC, internal dissension has become a national issue as a diverse membership seesaws between liberal policies and Marxist tendencies.
Critics charge that the party has strayed far from its liberation ideals.
"Our country is at risk because self-interest has become the driver of many of those in positions of authority who should be focused on serving the public," said activist Mamphela Ramphele in launching a new opposition party in February.
Some of Zuma's lieutenants have plotted against him, and he has been openly challenged by the ANC Youth League under the firebrand leadership of Julius Malema, who was kicked out of the party last year.
Critics have also voiced concern about the ANC's stranglehold on parliament -- where it holds 264 of the 400 seats.
Some fear that membership in the ruling party is seen as a gateway, or even a prerequisite, to business success.
"Out of all the African leaders who made it in business, all belong to the ruling party," notes political analyst Joe Mavuso.
What Tara has been talking about above is our lived reality as the poor Africans of South Africa. We really are not enamored by the critics who throw a smokescreen and a mirage to our suffering as if they are qualified enough to inform the world about us. We know of all these shenanigans of the ANC as clearly delineated by Tara above, and it is not something that is a secret.
Our problem is that, as the oppressed masses here in Mzantsi we lack legitimate and revolutionary voices for our plight. From the times of Apartheid, we as Africans here in Mzantsi are neither heard nor consulted with. We are just a "shadow, as characterized by Joseph Lelyveld in his book, "Move Your Shadow." That is all we are, a 'disappeared' people-a la Africans of Brazil.
With the death of Mandela, this is now even much more apparent, because it is no more about the poor Africans of Mzantsi, but about Mandela. We are only now in the forefront of the world media because of the sickness and final death of Mandela.
As to our contemporary concerns and decrepit existential reality, we matter to no one. Instead, the media is ablaze with experts from all walks of life, we are even afraid to voice our concerns and criticisms of Mandela lest we seem irrelevant and politically incorrect-or be assassinated and or incarcerated..
Since the struggle has been continuing now for the past 22 years, it can only go up/increase, and become worse, but not die. It was anathema and suicide to criticize the Apartheid regime, which I still do to this day. So then, since the poor Africans are adversely affected by the corruption and selling out of our land, people, natural resources and labor for a mere pittance, resulting in our genocidal demise, by the ANC and heir Deep pocketed Friends, I use the the social media and any type of the media to assail those who are our detractors and self-appointed spokesmen.
There are a lot of good things that came with Mandela being released from gaol. There is also a dysfunction that is endemic in our African collective which needs to be addressed without let-up. For the people of South Africa to witness an authentic and legitimate self-rule and democracy of their country and people, there will need to be a constant vigilance and attack on all those who think that we do not matter and are inconsequential, and should never be listened to nor heeded.
One can read most of my Hubs, published here on HubPages, on criticizing both the Apartheid regime and the ANC-led government, wherein I do not side with the enemies of the African people. These can be read and found on ixwa,hub.com, and the reader/viewer can select any of the articles I have published against these vultures who are gauging our lives away under various pretexes.
There are many people, as I have noted above, who are assailing and critiquing Mandela and are not apologizing for it, as also shown by Winnie's statements above. Nadira did not invent her article with all that is contained in it. There is no way she could have invented that narrative as she says was told to her by Winnie. She writes her narrative under a biased and uninformed backdrop, in her editorializing, both things she's not aware of and or is ignorant of..
The many details and assertions laid in it could only be said by someone with the intimate knowledge of the ANC and Mandela, like Winnie is, not Nadira. If Winnie tries to deny or retract her statement, it is because it serves her present condition. but as to it being the True, it will remain the Truth, and nothing else but the truth, so help me "Madlozi."(Ancestors)
The piece below is just a sample of what the people, those not afraid of the repercussion that will befall them have to say. And what they are saying, is on the lips of the millions of suffering Africans today in Mzants-dailyi. It is the Truth and nothing else but the truth...
Few dare to criticize ailing Mandela
Criticism of Nelson Mandela is rare in South Africa, much less so when he is lying in a hospital bed. But a few critics are still willing to break the taboo.
The 94-year-old's opposition to apartheid and his role in negotiating a peaceful democratic transition have won him worldwide, but not, it seems, universal adoration.
Twenty years after those talks, some still believe the deal he struck with South Africa's white rulers ensured blacks would be disenfranchised for decades to come.
Amukelani Ngobeni, a youth leader with the black consciousness party the Azanian People's Organization, is one such critic.
With whites still earning six times more than blacks on average, he recently demanded Mandela apologize before he dies for "selling out black people's struggle".
"Mandela and his friends... could not wait to occupy the global political space at the expense of the struggle for complete political, social and economic emancipation," he said.
The similarly minded Pan Africanist Congress's youth spokesman Sello Tladi also accused Mandela of being a "sell out."
But his party quickly distanced itself from the "reckless" statement made by "cranks" in its youth brigade.
Such back-peddling normally follows anti-Mandela comments as quickly as the public backlash.
In 2010, Mandela's ex-wife Winnie, who he separated from two years after his release from prison in 1990, let loose in an apparent unguarded moment.
"Mandela let us down. He agreed to a bad deal for the blacks," she was quoted as saying.
"Economically, we are still on the outside," she added, according to the article by Nadira Naipaul, wife of Nobel literature laureate V.S. Naipaul.
In the face of public outcry Winnie Mandela denied ever giving the Naipaul interview, and local media speculated she may have let slip in a private visit from the literary couple.
While Mandela was long criticized for his support for violent resistance to apartheid, he has also come in for criticism for his role as president from 1994 to 1999.
Mandela -- already a septuagenarian when he took office -- had expressed doubts about running the country he fought to create.
But while he managed to work with his former white jailers to "avoid a bloody civil war" he was not hands-on in the day-to-day running of the nation.
During his administration, biographer Anthony Sampson later noted, then deputy president Thabo Mbeki "was more decisively running the country as Mandela became increasingly aloof from day-to-day government."
He behaved "more like a constitutional monarch than an executive president."
Still, in Johannesburg's impoverished township of Alexandra/Some Soweto Townships dwellers, few are willing to criticize a man who is now breathing with the help of life support machines.
Only a highway separates the area from upmarket suburb Sandton, home to Africa's largest stock exchange.
"There are small groups saying he sold us out, but they are a very small minority," said 22-year-old Khetha, a trainee technician.
"He did his work," he said, adding that "blacks still don't have economic freedom, whites are more advantaged. If you compare the life of people from Sandton with those of Alex, it's obvious."
Others also temper their criticism.
"Even if he has done some things wrong, we don't speak about it because everybody idealized him," according to Mark Dons, 46.
"Mandela had his mistakes but, because of the man he was, people overlook them."
The former president's actions were necessary, said Joseph Mulaudzi also 46-years-old.
"He had to compromise on a lot of things during the reconciliation process," he said.
In the early 1990s "there were a lot of tensions ... if it was not for him, we would have had a civil war."
"That's why we can enjoy freedom. There had to be compromise," he added.
Yeah, I suppose we wereMight have Achieof d our 'Freedom".. I see it as having been "Free" to be "Dom'[Dumb]
Yes, we are 'supposedly enjoying the 'freedom' today, so say those who had clambered onto the South African "Gravy Train." But if one were to come here into the Township and ask us, as we have been living the worst nightmare of our lives for the past 22 years of ANC rule, and yet few people know this as well as they knew only of our suffering under the Apartheid regime.
Well, in this time and age of the technological society, some of us are going to use these gizmos and media to make our case, and we are going to dare and criticize Mandela, for in our present reality, he does not match the 'saint-like' characterization that has been afforded him[Mandela]. It is time for the world to begin paying attention that if we criticize Mandela, we are doing so because the world believes we are a democratic and constitutional country with all the rights endowed in it for us to use and apply.. Speech is a paramount ideal and goal we should achieve and maintain
We are not scared to call a 'spade a spade,' because we know that we cannot say it is a 'digging implement., or begin to speak on two sides of our mouths. There is a serious struggle going on in South africa right now, and it is now going to become apparent with the coming year. I have written a Hub I dubbed "Lowe Freedom Intensity Warfare in South Africa" and the reader can read it for themselves.
Hamba Kahle Nangoxolo Tata - Tsamaya Hantle Le Ka Kgotso Ntate(Go Well And In Peace, Tata
A Solliloquoy to the The "Black(African) Pimpernel
We, The Africans Of Mzantsi(South Africa)
In the name of the African people of Mzantsi, We say, fare thee well, Rolihlahla.. We the silent majorities, with all our conflicting reactions to your passing, we have a lot of memories to cherish for your being here on earth with us as long as you did. We learnt how to become men and women and stand our ground. Your legacy, as Obama said, is 'one for the ages', and our coming generations will forever hear and know about you in many ways. We do cry, even if some of us are angry, we are very unhappy that you became so sick as you did, and we are very unhappy that we could not be there for you as we have been for the past 27 years of your being taken from us illegally and brutally.
Your absence made us ore stronger and determined to overthrow the mightiest and most cruel system, the "Pariah" of the world,'(Apartheid) the one responsible for gross human rights crime and injustices against us. We sought to make sure we rid ourselves of this scum of the earth. Many died because of it. Many have been maimed, tortured, killed and families torn asunder and societies destroyed.
But, because we knew that you are there and are enduring the imprisonment of your being whilst fighting for our cause, we found that our suffering was nothing, because we kept on saying, forward ever, and backward never. We went forward till we saw you released. You pumped to us your "Power Fist" for all of us to see. To us it indicated that we have eventually found and grabbed the power you so wanted for us, we saw ourselves in your fist as one Nation under Amadlozi(Ancestors).
You are now with our beloved ancestors who were Kings as you were. We are not saying that you were our King because we say so. No. You were, and remained one imprisoned, stayed one Free, and we know that in the collective of our Kings in the nether world, you are one amongst the many that had our interests as a people at heart.
We know of no one at present who cares about us as a people as you did by sacrificing your family and us in doing so. We had no one to make us aware that we too are the most important men and women of the human race. We are not "Tribes" but a Nation of the Africans of Mzantsi. We are not divided as they(the Boers) and others are still trying to do now. We are One Nation under Amadlozi/Badimo(Ancestors). And that forever we will be because you made it possible.
You pulled us up from the abyss of oppression,repression, depression and all forms of dumbing us down and dehumanization. In fact, you made us have the courage to do it on your behalf, and by following on your footsteps and example, in 1976, we took our destinies into our hands and with our people.
We never accepted the less of ourselves, but saw ourselves more powerful than the very well armed and organized Regime of Apartheid with our matchboxes and stones. We had no fear, and feared no fear. We learnt how it was to be liberated whilst incarcerated in our Concentration camps called townships. We fought a long and mighty battle, and we won! How do we know we did-at least we can tell our children that you were with us as a free man and our president for the past 27 years. No one can take that away from us nor erase it. Because the last 24 years of you as a freeman in of itself is motivation and encouragement that we should never give up
'When you passed away, my son, who is now a young adult, began to pay attention to all what I was telling him. I wrote this article for my son and all the sons and girls of Mzantsi, who when in their time of need to understand their people and us, and he will come to read this article and find that they are from a people who never accepted being just the 'drawers of water and hewers of wood' for our oppressors. You motivated us to be much more better than what our detractors tried to make us be. We got to know and accept that we are far much more better than being slaves, and that was what you made us believe and see hope come alive and be real.
Though our hearts cry and a lump forms on our throats when we think and talk about you, the sun has risen for the people, the darkness has has been dissipated, the pain erased and joy and strength our weapons for the struggles that lie ahead. The new struggles that we face, which you saw before your passing, are what we are now turning around and facing.
Those who think that they will get away with murder, corruption and abuse of us as a people, have one think coming. We will continue the struggle in all forms and from all points and corners of our beleaguered country. As You have you've said, it is not done until it is done. This one, the struggle that we are heading into, though it is the most difficult one, we shall never falter, surrender, give up nor allow anyone to conquer us, for that is the legacy you spread, and left us with.
For now we are still faltering, for now we are still confused, for now we are still oppressed and are still to be completely Free and Autonomous, that, as we learned and saw from you is doable and possible. Doing that, we will, and all due credit and honor be given to you.. And for that we will be forever be indebted to your courage, strength, grit, determination and fortitude.
It is that hope that we will hold on tight to. That inspiration that even given a one foot by one foot space to operate our entire national life onto, we will take over the land that lies between the three oceans without fear or doubt. They laugh at us those who do not understand our resolve which we know from you and the other stalwarts who demonstrated it selflesly-made us to be even more determined. Our children will and people will be weened, too, from that which we have sucked from you and all our erstwhile leaders-be of that calibre too, that, we maintain that in the end, we will conquer. "Lizobuya Izwe Lethu! Mayibuye iAfrica!
Lala Kahle/robala Hantle Nelson Rolihlahla "Tata" Madiba" Mandela... Qhawe la Maqhawe.... The greatest statesmen and soldier of the suffering masses of the people - The One and Only "Black Pimpernell"..
ALUTA KONTINUA - The Struggle Continues...
Hugh Masekela Bring Back Nelson Mandela
Mandela - Julian Bahula's Jazz Afrika
MANDELA- Tribute song by Salif Keita
Let's go Back To the History Of Apartheid/The past hIstory of the ANC
Now that Mandela has passed away, it is time we started talking sense and what is really going on. When one reads many accounts of Mandela here on the Web and elsewhere, it is very interesting that few, if any, have a historical background of the ANC and Mandela as being part of the history of the ANC movement. Very few people really know what they are talking about.
And in that mix, they do so ignoring the African people who have vast knowledge as to what is going on. Many have conveniently forgotten what Apartheid did from 1948 to 1994 to African people, and it is either they are ignorant of that history or simply choose to utter the bylines and talking points which characterize many of the petty-political rhetoric or otherwise make rickety comments about Mandela, the ANC and African people.
Furthermore, many self-styled commentators about South Africa are ignorant of the history of the Afrikaner(or purposely not mention it nor know it), and also, they cannot talk about what happened from 1912 to 1994 to the Boere, British and African people. Above I gave a thumb-nail historical sketch of the rise, formation and operations of the ANC and its coming into being until it was expelled into exile. There is a lot of information I have left out because I have dealt with it on my other Hubs about Apartheid and the contemporary ANC, and it is for the reader to go and read what I had to say about the laws and the creation of the Apartheid regime in 1948. In some of my Hubs I have also given a list of laws from the time the Boers took over all the way to the 1970s, so that in this Hub I am not going to repeat that.
I would be lacking historical acuity if I really left out out the discussion about the Broederbond and BOSS(Bureau Of State Security) - under the tutelage of General Ban den Berg. A lot of information has been destroyed by the Apartheid regime, and many people do not really know what happened here in South Africa under Apartheid. One book which many people either have not consulted nor read, or is 'INSIDE BOSS'(See Photo) and can buy it from Amazon above, and another book about the formation and operation of the "Broederbond" by Brian Bunting, are just some of the books which will begin to inform people about what really took place in South Africa.
These are not the only books one can consult, but these two will give us a sense of what Apartheid was really about, and there are many more which I will post, if one can find them on Amazon that are giving a much more in-depth expose about Apartheid. If we are going to be honest and tell the truth about South Africa, long before we blame Mandela and the ANC, we need to have a serious knowledge about about the the Apartheid regime and what that really was all about, and this is from an African-centered perspective which has been ridiculed because we as African people have long been made 'non-persons' and incapable of thinking and talking about what has happened to us as African people; let's begin to put into proper perspective as to what type of machinations went into our suffering.
One ore thing one needs to add is the Book, 'South Africa At War - White Power and the Crisis in Southern Africa' by Richard Leornard, and the most interesting part of this book for me was the chapter on "Total Strategy Chapter, 7). A lot of people need to read this book too in order to put the present-day African struggles into perspective.
Also, it is important for the readers to have a balanced reading and begin to know and understand the present-day machination of the ANC, a book written by Paul Trewhela, "Inside Quatro: Uncovering the History of the ANC and SWAPO" is important to consult. We had better begin at the beginning and look at old truth/facts anew. The Apartheid regime was intent of wiping the African people our of human respect and recognition, and the ANC is bent of defiling the democracy of the African people. Both these forces are very dangerous in their operation in working against the interests of the poor people. Both on them were/are banking on the ignorance of the oppressed masses in order to shore-up their rule.
A lot of White people object to this type of information as if it is wrong to talk about it or expose it on the Internet. Many White people want to go along with what Mandela said to de Klerk when he said in Afrikaans let bygones be bygones. History does not necessarily agree with Tata, yes, we cannot live the present and execute the past, but we can talk and write about the past for historical posterity and Boers/British plus Africans to know what really happened in South Africa.
According to Dr. John Henrik Clark: "Powerful people cannot afford to educate the people they oppress, because once you are truly educated, you will not ask for power. You will take it." This applies to both the Apartheid regime and the present-day African-led ANC government. It is in the interest of the present ruling African elite to keep the majority of Africans 'edumacated' , ignorant and confused-they are Dumbing Us Down.
Water, This Time around..
Let's Get It On - Truth Out
What am I talking about above" Well, it is important to look and view the legacy of Mandela from an African centered perspective, because this is one perspective that is in short supply in South Africa. We have a lot of White writers telling the world about Africans, but nobody really pays attention to what African people have to say.
If we write articles like this one, we are questioned as to our motives, intentions and aims. We are never seen as legitimate and credible writers who are capable of writing and talking about our real and concrete experiences especially under Apartheid, and presently under the ANC government. The book "Inside Quatro" by Trewhela cannot be displayed here on this Hub because Amazon cannot let it be published, but readers can read it online on Google books.
Like I said in the block above, that the history of apartheid and the ANC will have to be thoroughly examined because it threatened the well-being of Africans in South Africa. Below I have responded to a reader and I agreed with her that many White people are being threatened too by the crime and violence, as well as Africans. If then that be the case, let's get the truth out, and begin to talk about these issues from an informed rather than an ignorant perspective.
Let us be clear about several things here, the writing of this Hub was in commemoration of Madiba and paying tribute to him as a leader, and critiquing his errors, which, most of them in one way or the other, he admitted to them. We must also remember that he loved Winnie, that is why her picture is alongside his boxing photo at the beginning of this Hub. We must also pay attention to the fact that there are "African People Indigenous to South Africa" who have something to say about their governance and destiny: this should be respected by any rulers and any ethnic group.
Many White people today are accepting the fact that the Apartheid regime dumbed them down and they went along with it, because it was privileged and lucrative too, and gave them a certain sense of power over their African underlings. We, Africans, today, have been Dumbed Down by the Apartheid regime, and now the ANC is into the same act of keeping its polity ignorant. This is a double whammy for African people.
There is a third element involved in the underdevelopment of Africans in the South Africa. Today, many people in South Africa, many of them mistakingly think that the collaboration and existence of the US is whats going improve us, today. No. This dates back to the discovery of Gold and Diamonds, and Paul Kruger and the Boers know a thing or two about this history of the investment and coming of the US into South Africa. One can see that with the many American conglomerates that dot the the South Africa landscape and their buildings towering in many cities-and just see modern development and progress. A good book to read, which, again, Amazon does not seem to be able to circulate is called :"South Africa and the United States: The declassified History" by Kenneth Mokoena.
This book has many blanked-out paragraphs and passages and it just shows how much secrecy is still embedded into the the South African real-polilitikc and psyche. The Total Strategy Chapter I mentioned above is one point that many people inside South Africa need to read about in order to come to grips with the present social malaise that is endemic of the social reality in South Africa.
Inside BOSS features the Master Spy leader General van den Berg who made no bones about his illegal and evil operation of eliminating the opponents of Apartheid without any remorse. He was brought down by the scandal that enveloped South Africa. So that, as we begin to peel off the layer of lies, obfuscation and dirty tricks that have plagued the poor in South Africa, it is important to note that we can only do so from an informed perspective, nothing more.
The More thigs, The More They Stay The same
There is no change that has taken place in South Africa, and what we see is cosmetic change, just like during the implementation of "Petty Apartheid" in the Vorster era. The window-dressing paraded as change is nothing but entrenched oppression which is a gain for those in power. This is apparent for all to see given the present corruption that is so flagrantly and arrogantly displayed/flaunted by the present Bosses ruling over South Africa-The ANC.In fact, what has been happening now for the past 20 years, heading to the 2014 election has been bad governance, sheer and obdurate corruption and consistent application of fear, assassinations and a low-intensity warfare on the poor and minority population.
Where have we seen and heard of this scene or picture before? It was of course during the Apartheid era. Now, it is like the present decrepit governance is on steroids and some form of generic Viagra. Same old, same old. The same oppression, repression depression and all types of social terrorism are being applied today. And with the passing of Tata, who knows what is going to happen.
Some White people have hope after having been deluged with TV since Tata passed. There is a false hope that is being peddled by the present rulers as if South Africa is one. At the same time, there is this undercurrent that is being reworked to get the political participation to a fever pitch as if all is good. No, it is not, and it seems like we are now headed for the edge of the cliff.
This is no doomsday utterance. Look at what is happening in our Twonships. Has anyone cared to really come to our Ghettoes and seen what we are going through? High electricity rates(we pay 40c to 50c per kilowatt hour for electricity, whilst companies pay 4c to 5c per kilowatt hour); They have been telling us that(and to be clear, some already have been subjected to this) we are going to receive 6000 liters of water, and when that finishes, we have to buy, because water is being brought by the Johannesburg Waterboard from Lesotho(Senqu River) and we have to pay for it.
The ANC has violated all the Freedom Charter precepts and principles in their haste to line their pockets with public funds and looting public coffers. Many people should read the Freedom Charter to see what I am talking about, and evaluate the performance of the ANC based on it. Our councilors are the most corrupt alongside their MEC's who run our provinces and Townships.
Hospitals are dirty and lacking in proper health-care srvices. Social services are not even there to talk about, and crime is worse. In this case, those ignorant about the history of African people say that it is Black on Black violence, which is like harkening back to the Apartheid mindset, and the victims are still blamed for the murders that they have been conditioned to perform on each other as if we are a senseless people. Many of the rich African monied class live in mansions, posh houses. Let's look much deeper into these issues of Water and general corruption that is our new normal today in Mzantsi.
Fewer Drops to Drink
South Africa at War Paperback by Richard Leonard
Contemporary Popular Struggles In Mzantsi: The Water Wars
At this juncture, I would like to delve deeper into an issue where the ANC has made promises to people and did a three-sixty and betrayed those promises. This is the issues of water, which the government claims it owns, but has not told the people that it has sold the water to a French Company. I would like to take up on the Water Wars that are taking place in South Africa today.
Since the ANC took over its lackey power, they have been in many negotiations with international Capital and governments in parcelling out land and resources of the people of South Africa. All they are interested in the kickbacks they get from such illicit and illegal shadowy transactions out of sight and in secret without their voting polity being made aware. That is why I have said from the outset that the ANC will have to begin to tell the people the truth because it is in the interest of the ANC and the people that such a dialogue and interaction take place, as will be noticed from the article below.
Water Has Become More Precious Than gold
The theme that constantly jumps at the reader is the oft repeated comment by the poor that "the ANC promised us free water and they said it is our basic right", and one resident wryly observed in one article above that' the(the ANC) has overturned our basic right to water and has put it up for sale." The struggle of water in South Africa, and in particular, the Big Suburb/Ghetto of Soweto) has begun to set up the stage for a future war(which people sense is coming) or revolution, which has some ANC people worried.
Activists in the forefront of these popular struggles are facing intimidation and constant harassment for enabling the residents whose water has beens liters has run out, since their water has been commerically outsourced and commercialized to foreign companies and this has required the residents to pay over R10.00 per liter for Water, of which some say they really are not getting the allotted amount. So that, within the articles, one can see the whole modus operandi of the ANC and its handlers to profit.
The residents are made to pay exorbitant water and electric bill, of which, the water water, which has been sold to a French company, and that same company pays the City of Johannesburg and R60 million in interest, and R40 million in 'greasing' the loan they got when they paid R187 million, and were able to pay R116 million, of which the R71 million will have to be paid by the poor residents, plus the raising interest on the payment, that, in the final analysis, there is really no payment made, because people have no money to buy or pay for water and electricity.
Even the local ANC leaders, who are now facing pressure, like those that were in a meeting this Friday with the residents, really do not understand what I have just said, or as cited by Bond in his article above. The question that come from the locals are met with a sense of obduracy, arrogance/ignorance and disregard by these ANC representatives for the problems facing them. When one of the local resident in effect told the ANC reps that they came to their communities to tell them about the way water has to be paid, without asking the resident what they think of it and/or should be done-he was hauled out of the meeting by some ANC spooks and honchos.
Right now, there is a problem facing the denizens of Soweto where people in areas known as "Deep Soweto" have to go about at night stealing water from the taps of their neighbors for they have none to drink or wash with. In fact, the ANC cadres could not answer the people in this meeting in Diepkloof, Soweto, when they asked them what are they supposed to pay after their 6,000 liters run out, per liter. None of the Officials could answer the public. Instead, these officials are intimidated by the members of the locals who are feisty and articulate about the Water Wars that have begun since the ANC sold their Water to the French, and they are getting commission from these companies. The locals are ignored, and intimidated
What the ANC is ignoring is what Samora Machel said:
"The truth is that we understand fully what we do not want: oppression, exploitation, humiliation. But as to what we do want want and how to get it, our ideas are necessarily still vague. They are born of practice,corrected by practice. ... We undoubtedly will run into setbacks. But it is from these setbacks that we will learn."
In addition to the story of the inhabitants of Orange Farm(as written by Bond above) using 'bootleg' plumbers and 'izinyoka"(snakes) to reconnect and bypass the water systems and give water to their resident, or reconnect those who have no electricity(which has become one of the many ways that the people are learning and fighting back), we will add the issue and problems of water in the following article written by Marti Wenger to show the extant and breadth and depth of this miasma:
All indications are that the controversial water quality problems in Carolina are the tip of the iceberg.
Louis Trichardt (in the Makhado municipality in Limpopo) has been without water for two months now. Ratepayers in the town of Louis Trichardt and parts of the Free State are reportedly preparing to go to court to demand improved water access. In addition, Hoedspruit, Boskbokrand, Brandfort, Winburg, Soutpan, Verkeerdevlei and Marquard have all been left without clean water for significant lengths of time this year.
The question is: what is Minister Molewa's plan to prevent further problems and to ensure that potable water is delivered to these and other towns across the country that face severe water shortages?
I have today written to the Minister to furnish me with a progress report for all of these areas, including Carolina, which is still without safe water.
In the wake of the court ruling against the Gert Sibande Municipality to deliver potable water we cautioned that it was not clear that any of the structural issues contributing to water delivery failure had been adequately addressed. Carolina, along with Caropark and Silobela townships, has gone without drinking water for at least six months. This is six months too long, and reports indicate that safe water is still not being delivered.
The Minister herself has noted in reply to a DA parliamentary question that it is estimated that up to 25% of people who have access to a tap are without an acceptable level of service. This is principally a result of failing municipal infrastructure, but management problems are increasingly highlighted as a contributing factor.
Unfortunately, it appears that the Blue Drop Report that the Department of Water is currently using to aid water service authorities to improve their ability to deliver potable water is not performing adequately as an early monitoring system, despite 'process control management' and 'water safety planning' being prominent scorecard indicators in the Blue Drop system.
The Vhembe water service authority, under which Louis Trichardt falls, scored 74.85% on the Blue Drop Report assessment and was one of the most improved performers in the latest edition of the report. Makhado scored 75% on 'process control management' and 57% on 'water safety planning'.
It is becoming clear that the Department of Water will have to go further than the annual production of the Blue Drop Report. We need stronger action from the Department in the form of directives and even criminal charges against municipal authorities that are failing in their duty to deliver potable water to all South Africans.
The Minister has been at pains to point out that the national department is the regulator and not responsible for water provision on the ground. That is true, but then her Department must do the job of the regulator.
Minister Molewa called the Carolina court action a war against the state and said that it was municipalities' responsibility to ensure water access in their jurisdiction. But municipal water service authorities fall under the ultimate responsibility of the Department of Water Affairs. It is time for Minister Molewa to stop passing the buck and start taking responsibility.
The lack of action in all these places to address the concerns of water shortages in these areas is still not being addressed. Instead, this company is busy putting up meters, as we have seen that the very same meters ended being banned in England, so that, what will make them succeed in the Soweto's of South Africa? At present, they are not really succeeding, and in the meantime, the residents, those who cannot afford to buy water or electricity, are suffering and getting very restless and angry.
The ANC, instead of listening to the people, are focused on increasing their commissions and fat checks, and ignore or try to intimidate the locals of these suffering enclaves. The thing about this is that eventually there is a price to be paid, and the ANC does not think that will happen to them.. Well time and history will tell.
Water has become a very scarce commodity in a land with many rivers-with periodic devastating droughts, and most of it is being redirected and channelled to the Coal Mining Interests along the Limpopo and such places. Underground aquifers have been shut down to redirect water to these burgeoning mining companies..
Well, that too, has come within the purview of the poor, and they have begun to learn how to correct their bungling errors, and enter into a revolutionary mode in dealing with their detractors-both the ANC and the the Multi-corporations.
ANC Promises Ring Hollow Amidst their being Corrupt and Drowning n Opulence amidst Crushing Poverty and Poor Schools
"We need to bridge these words with the meanings of our times" stated Obama."
African people need not only display our fluency in being able to cite intellectuals or coveted leaders only, but their words and actions ought to direct and give meaning to their understanding the action and the roles they need to play and work on. Their words and the meanings of their daring actions need not only be something Africans should only regurgitate, but be blueprints and protocols for the emancipation of their people they should apply.
Africans of South Africa have to know by now, since most are Web savvy, what the Web and surfing in the meta data of the viral stream is all about and how it should be used in the case of the social media. Social Media should be the vehicle through which Africans should bridge the gaps of divisions amongst themselves into a collaborative working forum that moves the stagnant struggles they are mired-in, forward.
People in the African communities are besieged by drugs of all sorts they have never had before the coming of the ANC(This will be discussed below). They knew, then, that Sol Kezner was peddling Coke, along with some other well-known soccer magnates and potentates; they also knew that there was something called the Mandrax,and sold through many illicit ways.
Now there's a deluge of every drug conceivable circulating in the midst of all the poor African and rich; children are splurged with violent games and pornography, and, most people save it in their cell phones; Rape is on the rise and rampage, so do some other deadly crimes of "Africans on Africans"; the people who are suffering with HIV/AIDS, are left to wither away before they are given the Anti-Virals; chronic joblessness is creating all kinds devastation and despair not yet calibrated and what it all means as it is ongoing as of the writing of this piece.
Africans of South Africa know that there is a culture that is practiced nationally by all the African groups that make the nation of Mzantsi. They have to first of all get rid of the hangover that has been the left-over from the Apartheid era. Africans are not "Tribes". By referring to themselves as such, they will be defeating the idea of seeing themselves as a free and united nation. African Consciousness means African awareness of the African's place in the world today, and the possibility as to where they could be tomorrow were they conscious. Knowing more about each other will help in the growth of a holistic understanding and appreciation of their own culture as a unified culture and one Nation.
So that, to be able to see themselves as a nation, they need to be cognizant and aware of their national make-up today as we speak. We have marriage customs and traditions; there are rules governing families and societies in their cultural protocols; there are specific laws and rules for labor and community services; Africans have a given expanse of African history, and within African history's curricula that can serve their needs as an African people, as touched-upon by Clarke above, and deep below in this Hub. Africans have a history of everything they might endeavor to take upon, without borrowing or aping other cultures, customs, traditions, languages, dance and music-the whole bit!
The day Africans in South Africa are able to link their present-here-and-now reality, to historical data and future planning, that will be the day the revolution of any kind will begin moving ahead. Understanding what the Media is and how to use it for one's gains is very important for us African people to come to grips with. Media, therefore, is just like oral communication, but using it as gadget medium.
I am not here only talking about the TV, Radio or newspaper media, but technological media of the computer sort. Supporting one another and not being careless about their relationships with one another is of prime importance. The fulcrum of African South African culture is "UBuntu/Botho" along with "Inhlonipho/Hlompho"(Respect). This, if observed, can facilitate for cohesive and tight interpersonal relationships and interactions-and enable Africans of South Africa in building their history, culture and nation.
I am saying all the above because some of the 'have-plenties'(African Elite, in particular) have become so Westernized, that they have imbibed Western values, mores, moral and norms to the detriment of their own culture and people as I have described it above, because they boast and claim to know that "Shakespeare was a great writer and whatever; because Richard Elliot was the greatest poet; because eating out in restaurants has been imposed as a new African normal; McDonald's/Burger King, KFC. et al, is the fastest way in and out for ones daily meal; that is, the Africans of South Africa, in larger numbers, are buying hook-and-sink into Westernized consumer patterns, fashion clothes, parlayed as the sign and belief that it is modernity.
The buying of expensive cars, housing, mannerisms, literature, music and mind-set, has become a way to show-off one's status in society, and sophistication about what others do not have, that one is the only one that has material wealth, and Western education; acquirement of Western individualism and fake accents and fake knowledge of a history, culture, tradition, custom and languages not of their own, is the way to go-the rule-something to be vied for and aspired towards attaining.
Africans have and are living large in the shadows of other[European/American] peoples ways of life, stories, and mannerism, culture, traditions except their own indigenous cultures, customs and traditions. They have discarded their own ways; and have also shown disdain and shame about and for their own culture, that in the end, instead of focusing on building a nation based on what their cultures offers, instead, they 'pick up their noses' at it as if its unpalatable and has an odious odor, they label it derisively and dismissively in degrading terms and tones.
They brag about their jobs(which they do not own), cars, big houses in the suburbs(which they owe); sporting the finest clothes of Europe and America making them not local people-and that they believe makes them an important people; they wear expensive perfumes(French, Italian and American); they import and purchase house wares, dishes, shoes.
They go to these foreign countries and spend thousands of Rands on clothes and other trinkets and stay in five star hotels; they hobnob with VIP and Heads of States; they stay in suburban areas areas whose real estate prices could finance whole Townships with everything; they take planeloads of rich fun-lovers to remote Islands and rent-out a whole hotels and party for days.
They are pigging away their paltry riches towards their own destruction-especially the monied African Elite and their hangers-on, relatives, friends and the whole nepotism, cronyism network which has huge devastating and deleterious effects on the governance of the poor African masses and the poor themselves.
Nations are not built from such chaotic ways of being and forgetting communal existence in the African sense of living in that cultural manner.. Africans seem to fall into the trap that they are seeing big money for the first time, that this takes them out of our minds and wits as to what to do with it. There are many tales of waste and reckless spending that have become the lore of the rich African elite in South africa. Their children burn clothes and money to show-off the their vanity and ignorance along with boredom, plus lack of direction.
It would be better if African people knew what they were doing than wax political and rant revolutionary on Facebook and other Social media, and to no one in particular. All are pretentious acts that are an effort of a people running away from what is facing them: all from ignorance, mental illnesses; devastating illnesses like Cholera, TB, Scurvy, Alcoholism, Drug Addiction.
There is rampant and callous corruption; insecurities; gloom and doom; bleak futures; joblessness; decaying communities and cultures, morals, mores, norms, customs, traditions,languages, discarding of sacred rites and practices which are fast disappearing permanently; miseducation and oppression, depression, repression. No Nation Will Ever Arise From A Disunited And Dysfunctional People!
Living Large and Flaunting it....
Makes Me wonder Why we Always Go Under
So that on the eve of the burial of the most revolutionary man(Madiba) we had in our midst, a man who tried to make life better for us, this is what we have come to. There is a reality-check here that needs to be heeded.
These are the times that Africans are living under, and we have to cope in order to live to see another day. We have to shut up and not complain even though we are being abused, and if we say so, some say we really do not know what we are griping about. We are under some shellacking from our own elected government. Right now they are playing on the insecurities of the poor with barren promises and they know that they are not going to deliver.
The poor are more poorer now, and the African rich elite stinking rich. This is the normal way things are today in South. And the death of Mandela will not ameliorate this. There needs to be something done about this, and the Black rich elite will hear nothing of it. They kow-tow to their masters and dismiss the poor as 'irritants,' and why cannot they raise themselves by their bootstraps. Well, this is our Mzantsi, and this is what we are talking about. The Have Mores are stinking rich, and the rest[Have Nothings] of the poor masses have to live in abject poverty. Makes me wonder why we always go under...
This then, is the new Rainbow democratic South africa that is seen by the world; this is then the new Mzantsi where the poor are disappeared and forgotten, and only remembered come election time. This are the times we live in here in Mzatnsi. Rest In Peace, Tata.. We really have our hands full and the struggle that lies ahead is that we are now going to have to face our own brothers and sisters who are caught in the tired 'Gravy train' we saw them clamber onto.
What really irks me about the ANC is that they always have this mindset that they are above criticism or reproach. The have this self-righteous arrogant demeanor and feeling that they have been long to around a century, and that proves that they are permanent. Even if there's o arguing with that assertion, that does not mean we need to have fools ruling in the ANC.
For the past 20 years the ANC has been playing hide-and-seek with the people and gambling with their money too. It has come to a point that to be well-off and get tenders of control their disbursement, one has to pay-to-play and sheepishly follow his bosses, just so that they do not cut them from the loop. This is what has gotten to the people-corruption, nepotism, cronyism, favoritism and dysfunction that is the results of these types of operations and dealing with the public or voters. A musical interlude is in order here.
Amandla!: A Revolution In Four Part Harmony
It Hurts Too Much -We Have Hope So Much
Sarafina -Original Version
Mbogeni Ngema - Lizobuya - Solidarity with the Arab Revolutions
Brenda Fassie [My] Black President
Words of Comfort: We Might Tell What Time It Is
For Mandela and the His People Of Mzantsi Now that He is gone to the Ancestors. As we ponder and wonder about what's next-strength and one looking forwardness can be found in one reminder as the following poem called:
"What's The Hour Of The Night"
After four score years of freedom
Our so-called leaders say
that the race has made great progress
And we face the dawn of day
But the day in not quite dawning
Millions of my peoples stand
pleading at the bars of justice
for reparation and land
We're not free in this country
And the truth is the light
So I turn to ask my watchman
What's the hour of the night?
We died fighting for democracy
I admit this to be true
Yet Countless African women & men
Have no homes or work to do
If we wish to see the daylight
Or the rising of the Sun
We need our self-determination
Our won affair to run
since reparations will
put freedom in our sight
Let us turn to ask the watchman
What's the hour of the night?
We fought with the mighty armies
When they battled with the Huns
Faced the fierce pangs of combat
Herd the roar of the guns
But no change came in our condition
When the smoke had cleared away
For the blood we shed in battle
Did not bring the dawn of day
All of our suffering and serivce
Left us in the same old plight
So I turn to aask my watchman
What's the hour of the night?
The Whites are celebrating their freedom
A bicentennial whose praise they sing
But Africans are also jumping on board
Although we didn't get a thing
We're still struggling for integration
As though it was a glorious fight
So I've got to as my watchman
What's the hour of the night?
Music is an art or science
In which African men reign supreme
But the story of our progress
Is still a vision or a dream
But we have great voices for singing
But we have no voice in court
Imagine being attacked by police dogs
Just to register and vote
We would have our perfect right
So we turn to ask our watchman
What's the hour of the night?
African men boast of their religion
Though I wonder if they should
When you take an inventory
You'll find them not so good
We build thousands of fine churches
With the dollars that we give
Yet masses of our people
Have no decent place to live
We say God is our rich father
Yet we're always on a tight
Watchman strike a match and tell me
What's the hour of the night
Civil rights law just for us
Is proof that were not free
How could we be fooled to think
We had a share in this democracy
When foreigners come here
They're made citizens by choice
Citizenship was imposed upon us
We venver had a choice
The passage of the 14th Amendment
Took away the right
So you better ask the watchman
What's the hour of the night?
Time is running out for us
A deadline we must meet
To file reparation petitions
and make politicians earn their seats
If we're to win this battle,
Every organization must join the Fight
Then well tell our watchman
What's the hour of the night
- Queen Mother Audley Moore (July 27, 1950)
The Cold Truth And Reality: RIP Madiba
The Media As A Register Of PeoplesTalk-People's Core
Rolihlahla - Trouble-Maker (It is an isiXhosa)African language in Mzantsi) name which means "Pulling the branch of a tree, but colloquially it means "Troublemaker"
The people came in the rain which to those who still remember in tmeans good tidings in so many ways. Some sat in the homes and were glued to the TV. The people in the stadium and those watching on the glue or radio were there in the memorial for many reason that include their life-styles, today, are that of going from funeral to funeral.
Most people like in the case of Soweto, are not strangers to Funerals and there is already a culture around funerals which is not spoken much about. Anyway, it is burying the dead who passed-on for various reasons. Much of the culture of funerals had been created by the Apartheid regime when it was fighting with the African communitites. Nowadays it is because of diseases, and other social maladies.
The funeral for Mandela was a different funeral because he was the leader who has a long history with the people in many settings. The relationship of Tata and his people was complex and very interesting. The general population of Mzantsi is mobile smart-phone attuned and savvy. The growing and burgeoning gizmos and the technological technique is what the people are familiar with. So are they TV conscious and sensitively aware. Radio along with newspapers is their mainstay of news gathering/consumption, music, and so forth.
So that, when one intensely uses images on these media outlets, gizmos and technologies/technique, the people interact with them in very unpredictable manner. In the case of Tata's memorial, media gadgets, Images came to a head in the calabash or FNB Stadium. The ANC sensed this and reacted in a way that sharpened the contradictions of 'decorum' and expected outcomes from a grieving masses.
For African people, funeral, nowadays, in Soweto, have people been communicating intensely, orally, and in close quarters. This form of communication[like WhatsAPP, one can see if one participates in going to various funeral for the whole week. Aids is a constant killer and many other causes of funeral and burying of people. but the consistent/constant oral and one-to-one to group and various kinds of interaction-is found in the many Social Media forums around the Web. In the stadium many came and commemorated Tata, and the ongoing dialogues between the ANC and the people spilled into the stadium, and the digital media was caught up in being used for many ends. The people did not hide their negative attitude and perception especially towards the ANC.
World leaders were in awe as to what to do; the ANC was 'feeling embarrassed." as the interaction between the speakers and the crowd received different types of reaction. The attention span and focus of the crowd was shifty and fleeting, but in most cases, people were more interested in their goings on and singing. The speeches and accolades(except for Obama' was seemingly the only one that got the crowd back into the calabash).
Why is this important that I should take note of it. Some of us spend a life time studying and observing ones people, and from this, one learns more about them in different settings and existences. In the case of the crowd on TV and the stadium, the crowds mood was more fluid and rolling. The people who were manipulating the images on the Teletron Screens were most of the time caught off their pants.
This is important because the person that the people had come to commemorate was a Trouble-Maker", and the people on in the Stadium were behaving just like the name of the person they had come to bury, which they carried on with it through singing and dancing, but rebelled in unison about certain things and events that were happening in the stadium.
It is case of the people becoming very unruly and uncontrollable in a place they had come for a man who was a troublemaker-That was what Madiba's commemoration was to his people. In short, the troublemaking masses in the Stadium is a microcosm of what is actually going on between the people the ANC and what this fight is about.
I will delve much deeper below after I post the article below wherein we get in recorded, somewhat, one can say, in real time mode, that the data and events shines a light on what I am talking when I say there is a war going on between the people and ANC from a media and social perspective and point of view, and it played itself fully out in the Stadium.
The Heightening Of Contradictions
This was a day of commemorating Madiba, and this has been tabulated in a form of shortened news in one place by SAP. I post this because as a historian, one of my tasks iis to record and keep record of history and its events. This might be a tad long, but it is important as a record and from where we can glean the contradictions I have been talking above between the ANC and African masses..
"All the Mandela Memorial Day News In One Place"
Booing did country a disservice: ANC - Sapa
Those who booed during the memorial service for former president Nelson Mandela on Tuesday did the country a disservice, said ANC spokesman Jackson Mthembu.
"Whatever the motivation for this behaviour, the behaviour still remains condemned," he said at the end of the memorial at the FNB Stadium in Soweto.
"Whoever was party to that did us, as a country, a disservice.
"It did the Madiba family, who are mourning, and also Mama Graca [Mandela's widow Graca Machel] and Mama Winnie [his ex-wife Winnie Madikizela-Mandela]... a terrible disservice."
Mthembu said the memorial had not been the platform to air political views.
Earlier, the crowd booed President Jacob Zuma every time his image was shown on the big screen.
Mthembu said those who booed had let down all South Africans present at the memorial and watching on television.
African National Congress deputy president Cyril Ramaphosa had to take control of the situation after disruptions by the crowd.
He called on them three times to be disciplined.
"We have visitors let's not embarrass ourselves. Behave," said Ramaphosa.
"He [Mandela] was a disciplined cadre and let us send him off in a disciplined way."
Mandela was a modern prophet: Abrahams - Sapa
Former president Nelson Mandela was a modern prophet who changed the world, Bishop Ivan Abrahams said on Tuesday.
"God, you have given us a modern prophet who spoke with the voice of courage and conviction. One who transformed our nation and changed the world," he said at Mandela's memorial service at the FNB Stadium, in Soweto.
"You gave us Nelson Mandela, who stood as the conscience of people... a beacon of life."
Abrahams said the time was right in South Africa for Mandela's legacy to be part of every facet of people's lives.
"What brings us here today is not just grief, but love. Love for Madiba and the Mandela family."
He said all South Africans were Mandela's progeny.
"It is not [necessary] to be a member of the ruling party, or be in government to carry the mantle of this man. It is our duty to carry his mantle."
As Abrahams spoke, people began leaving the stadium.
Zuma pays tribute to Mandela - Sapa
Former president Nelson Mandela was one of a kind, President Jacob Zuma said on Tuesday.
"There is no one quite like him," he told a large crowd at Mandela's memorial service at FNB Stadium, in Soweto.
Part of the crowd heckled him when he started speaking, but music drowned out the sound.
Zuma said: "Everyone has had a Mandela moment. This world icon has touched their lives."
If the apartheid government had its way, people would have been burned for even thinking about former president Nelson Mandela, President Jacob Zuma said at his memorial service at FNB Stadium in Soweto, on Tuesday.
"Madiba was in the minds of all of us for 27 years... and he inspired us every day," said Zuma.
"For 27 years, the South African people spoke of him in hushed tones.
"He had unique leadership. He started negotiations with the enemy while in prison. He negotiated for the release of his fellow prisoners before his own release."
His release from Victor Verster Prison was one of the most remarkable moments, said Zuma.
He said South Africa needed a leader like Mandela.
Fidel and Mandela had bond: Castro - Sapa
Former Cuban president Fidel Castro had a deep link to former president Nelson Mandela, Cuban President Raul Castro told Mandela's memorial service at FNB Stadium, in Soweto, on Tuesday.
"The Cuban people have a special place in the hearts of the people of South Africa," he said.
He recalled a trip by Mandela to Cuba in 1991, and said a "bond of perfection" had been forged between Mandela and Fidel Castro during the visit.
This represented "a symbol of the fraternal connection between Cubans and South Africans", he said.
Castro said his older brother Fidel had told him that Mandela would not be remembered for the 27 years he spent in prison.
"He will go down in history for cleansing his soul from the poison [of apartheid]."
Castro said Mandela had set up "an insurmountable example to Latin America and the Caribbean".
Mandela had taught these nations that it was only though dialogue and co-operation that conflict could be resolved, Castro said.
During his speech, people were seen jiving[dancing out of the stadium with colorful umbrellas.
All SA with us today: ANC - Sapa
Even if not all people could make it to FNB Stadium or other memorials for former president Nelson Mandela, all South Africans were remembering him on Tuesday, said the ANC.
"Many South Africans are glued to their TV screens," said African National Congress spokesman Jackson Mthembu.
"Others are listening over radio.... In spirit they are here. This rainbow nation of Madiba's is here physically and spiritually."
Asked what his favourite Mandela moment was, Mthembu said it was when Mandela was released from prison and spoke in Johannesburg as a free man.
"That was a moment I will never forget in my life, welcoming him as a free man" Mthembu said.
Mandela died at his home in Houghton, Johannesburg, on Thursday. He was 95. He will be buried in Qunu, in the Eastern Cape, on Sunday.
Don't embarrass us: Ramaphosa - Sapa
ANC president Cyril Ramaphosa sought to take control of the situation at the FNB Stadium on Tuesday after disruptions by sections of the crowd.
Three times he called on people to be disciplined.
"We have visitors, let's not embarrass ourselves, behave," Ramaphosa said.
"He [Mandela] was a disciplined cadre and let us send him off in a disciplined way. Let us show all and sundry that we are a disciplined people."
People interrupted tributes by some foreign heads of state by cheering their favourite politicians and booing President Jacob Zuma.
He interrupted the speech by India's President Pranab Mukherjee, moving the microphone away from his face, to address a band playing in the crowd: "You can play your wonderful music in a while," he said.
He informed the crowd that Zuma's speech would be brief because of the rain.
A note came up on the big screen reading "silence please".
Some people started leaving the FNB Stadium as the rain continued to pour down in Soweto. Others chatted among themselves during speeches.
The noise of the chatter overwhelmed the sound of the speeches by Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff and Chinese vice-president Li Yuanchao.
Despite Ramaphosa's pleas, some of the crowd sang during the speeches. The crowd seemed more interested in getting a wave from leaders such as US President Barack Obama than listening to the tributes.
India pays tribute to Mandela - Sapa
Former president Nelson Mandela pursued the impossible, India's president Pranab Mukherjee said on Tuesday.
"He pursued an impossible goal for his people. We, in India, have long admired him and all that he stood for, and we will always cherish him," he said.
"Nelson Mandela was a visionary. He epitomised uncommon human ways that inspired all of mankind."
He sent his condolences to South Africa and described Mandela's death as a great loss.
We are familiy: Namibia's Pohamba - Sapa
Namibian President Hifikepunye Pohamba addressed South Africans as "brothers and sisters" who need to stand together, at the memorial service for former president Nelson Mandela at the FNB Stadium in Soweto on Tuesday.
"Our brothers and sisters... We shared the struggle against apartheid and colonialism, let us continue to stand together in the second phase of the struggle against economic and social problems."
Dressed in a black suit and hat, Pohamba described Mandela as a "reliable comrade-in-arms" to Namibians.
He said the international memorial gathering showed that people had come together "as one human family united by a son of the African soul".
China pays tribute to Mandela - Sapa
Former president Nelson Mandela is a household name in China, the county's vice-president Li Yuanchao said through an interpreter in Johannesburg on Tuesday.
"We have travelled from different parts of the world to be here today... I wish to express my deep condolences to the family of this towering figure... whose smile we remember fondly," he said at FNB stadium, in Soweto.
"Mr Mandela was the pride of the African people... he championed the dignity of African people."
Li said Mandela was the founding father of South Africa, led the country to victory against apartheid and laid a solid foundation for the country.
"May the deceased rest in peace, while the living must move on in life. People must carry forward his legacy.
"China stands ready to work with South Africa... and deepen its partnerships... and contribute to the noble cause of world peace."
'Not even an earthquake could stop me watching the Mandela memorial service: pensioner - Sapa
Not even the worst earthquake could stop pensioner Emily Mashaba from watching a broadcast of former president Nelson Mandela's memorial service in Soweto on Tuesday.
"I am soaked by the rain, as you can see, but I am soldiering on. Not even an earthquake could stop me from coming," she said at Orlando stadium, as she watched the live broadcast from FNB stadium.
Crowds continued to arrive at the water-logged venue.
Mashaba, 68, from Orlando West, said the event would be the most memorable event for her.
"Unfortunately, I won't make it to Madiba's funeral in Qunu, Orlando my backyard, shall be the place to bid him farewell."
Pensioner Pauline Thithi, from Mzimhlophe, said: "I am here to say farewell to the greatest man that has ever walked this earth."
"He emancipated black people.... We no longer carry passes, we are free," she said.
Mothers carried babies on their backs and occupied the covered upper tiers of the stadium. Some had packed lunch and beverages for the day.
Eleven-year-old Rethabile Skota, of Ennerdale, said she came with her mother to learn about Mandela.
"I used to see him on television. He was a good man."
Emelia Khosa, from Diepkloof, said she learnt of Mandela's death only on Friday morning.
"I was busy doing laundry and had not watched television; I was shocked when my neighbour told me he had died the previous night," she said.
People watched the proceedings on a giant screen, while others went to buy food and hot beverages from food stalls within the stadium.
Earlier, people sang struggle songs and danced.
Several buses stopped at the Bus Rapid Transit station along nearby Mooki Street, dropping off hundreds of people.
Orlando stadium was one of the feeder venues where members of the public could follow the official memorial service for Mandela at the FNB Stadium, south of Johannesburg.
Mandela died at his home in Houghton, Johannesburg, on Thursday at the age of 95. He will be buried in Qunu, in the Eastern Cape, on Sunday.
Zuma loudly booed at Mandela Memorial - Sapa
President Jacob Zuma was loudly booed by mourners at Nelson Mandela's memorial at the FNB Stadium on Tuesday, suffering political humiliation as the world watched.
Sections of the crowd of tens of thousands jeered when Zuma arrived at the venue in Soweto, and again every time his face appeared on screens during the ceremony.
It marked a contrast to the welcome given to Zuma's predecessor Thabo Mbeki and US President Barack Obama, who delivered a eulogy for Mandela.
The stadium erupted in applause as Obama and his wife Michele appeared on giant screens, but the mood changed the moment the camera moved to Zuma, who is weathering a political storm in the run-up to next year's general elections.
ANC deputy president Cyril Ramaphosa urged the crowd to show restraint, invoking the example of Mandela.
"We should show the same level of discipline as Madiba exuded," said Ramaphosa, who remarked earlier that the nearly 100 foreign leaders at the ceremony represented "billions of people around the world who are saying farewell to Nelson Mandela".
Earlier, as Mbeki arrived at the stadium, the crowd eagerly chanted the name of the man who succeeded Mandela and had effectively been his prime minister during his single-term presidency.
When Zuma arrived, a number of people in the crowd made a rolling hand signal, usually interpreted to mean political change is wanted.
The crowd also warmly welcomed FW de Klerk, South Africa's last white president who released Mandela from jail after 27 years and negotiated the white minority out of power.
Obama pays tribute to Nelson Mandela - Sapa
The world thanks South Africa for sharing former president Nelson Mandela with the world, US president Barack Obama said on Tuesday.
"It is an honour to be with you today, to celebrate a life like no other," he said.
"People of every walk of life, the world thanks you for sharing Mandela with us. His struggle was your struggle. His triumph was your triumph."
Obama said Mandela was the last great liberator of the 20th century.
He was committed to democracy and rule of law, and received the adoration he deserved.
Madiba could admit to imperfection.
"We loved him so....He was a man of flesh and blood, a son and a husband...that's why we learnt so much from him."
He earned his place in history through the struggle.
He sent condolences to the Mandela family and South Africa.
Rainbow for SA: Ban Ki-Moon - Sapa
South Africa will see a rainbow of hope following the death of former president Nelson Mandela, United Nations secretary general Ban Ki-Moon said on Tuesday.
"I am deeply honoured... to attend the state memorial service for Nelson Mandela," Ban said at Mandela's memorial service at the FNB Stadium in Soweto.
"This memorial is a wondrous display of this rainbow nation. I hope we will be able to see the rainbow soon, through the rain of sadness."
He said Mandela had been prepared to give up everything for freedom and democracy.
"The world has lost a beloved friend and mentor. He was more than one of the greatest leaders of our time: he was the greatest teacher. He taught by example," he said.
"Lama Ngoxolo (Rest in piece)."
The crowd booed former US president George W Bush, when he appeared on the screen at the stadium.
As ANC chairwoman Baleka Mbete introduced Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe, the crowd loudly cheered.
Ramaphosa calls for discipline - Sapa
ANC deputy president Cyril Ramaphosa urged the crowd to show restraint and be disciplined during the memorial for former president Nelson Mandela at the FNB Stadium on Tuesday.
"We should show the same level of discipline as Madiba exuded," Ramaphosa said.
This was after the crowd booed President Jacob Zuma when his image appeared on the big screen.
US president Barack Obama had just received a rousing cheer.
Tributes by family members and Mandela's friends were interrupted by the crowd's cheers.
Interfaith prayers for Madiba - Sapa
Various religious leaders offered up prayers for former president Nelson Mandela at his memorial service at the FNB Stadium south of Johannesburg on Tuesday.
SA Chief Rabbi Warren Goldstein compared Mandela to Joseph in the Bible.
He said that just like Joseph, Mandela spent years in prison, was released from prison, preached forgiveness, and went on to become a leader of his nation.
Iman Ebrahim Bham said Mandela made selfless efforts and lived in a path of peace and reconciliation.
"Madiba never lost an opportunity to reconcile people," said Bham.
Chair of the Maha Sabha Ashwin Trikamjee recited a Hindu prayer.
Anglican Archbishop of Cape Town Thabo Makgoba said: "We say to Madiba, go forth revolutionary soul... In the name of God who created you, suffered with you, and liberated you. Go home Madiba."
During the prayers, Anglican Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu was seen sunk low in his chair with his hands over his head. Mandela's wife Graca Machel listened intently to the speakers, with her lips pursed together.
After the prayers, ANC chairwoman Baleka Mbete sang "Mandela, there is none like you" in Setswana.
The crowds stood up and joined her, moving in time to the song under their umbrellas.
FNB crowd vocal about preferences - Sapa
The crowd at the FNB Stadium made no secret of its sentiments as images of politicians and others were shown on the big screen at the memorial for former president Nelson Mandela on Tuesday.
President Jacob Zuma was repeatedly booed each time he was shown on a large screen at the stadium.
US president Barack Obama was welcomed shortly before 1pm with a sustained shout of joy by the crowd.
However, the second the image on the screen changed to that of Zuma, the crowd began an equally passionate boo.
The crowd jeered even when Zuma was shown appeared during a tribute by Mandela family friend and struggle hero Andrew Mlangeni.
During the welcome address by ANC deputy president Cyril Ramaphosa, the crowd cheered Deputy President Kgalema Motlanthe and former presidents FW De Klerk and Thabo Mbeki, but when they saw Zuma, a sustained boo echoed across the calabash-shaped stadium.
People watching the service on a big screen in Dobsonville, Soweto, also jeered when Zuma appeared.
Mandela's widow Graca Machel and his ex-wife Winnie Madikizela-Mandela were both loudly cheered each time they were shown on screen, as was former president Thabo Mbeki.
An image of a group wearing red Economic Freedom Fighters' berets prompted the crowd to boo.
As the rain came down in Soweto, people huddled under umbrellas trying to keep dry.
Mvezo residents remember Mandela - Sapa
Residents of Nelson Mandela's birthplace of Mvezo in the Eastern Cape remembered the former president as they watched his memorial service on TV on Tuesday.
They shared memories of meeting the anti-apartheid leader.
Nomfundo Mqakathu said she still thought of the day she met Madiba at his Soweto home.
"We were going to a choir festival and we were wearing pants. He said we should not wear them because they made us look like boys."
She thanked Mandela for believing in the youth and helping shape the country into one where people of all races could live in harmony.
James Maqethu praised the former president's work and spirit. He said Mandela showed selflessness and was always available to help the less fortunate.
"He has done so much for this country. He has played his part and as the people of Mvezo, Abathembu, we want to say to the family that we are all feeling the pain."
Abathembu chief from KwaZulu-Natal, Khulekani Walter Mkhulisa, said during their meeting in 2011, Mandela told them of the importance of education.
"He said kings and chiefs should be educated in order to be able to lead their people," he said.
Mandela touched my soul: Mlangeni - Sapa
Former president Nelson Mandela touched the lives of all South Africans, ANC stalwart Andrew Mlangeni said at his memorial service at the FNB Stadium in Soweto on Tuesday.
"We are gathered here today to celebrate the life of the founding father of South Africa," he said.
"I have been privileged and honoured to have Mandela touch my heart, my soul and my life. He touched the lives of many South Africans."
As Mlangeni spoke, the big screen showed a stern looking former president Thabo Mbeki.
When the screen showed members of the Economic Freedom Fighters, the crowd booed, and then immediately cheered when it showed Mandela's ex-wife Winnie Madikizela-Mandela.
When Mlangeni took to the podium, the crowd cheered and started singing for him. They also laughed at his mispronunciation of President Jacob Zuma's middle name, Gedleyihlekisa.
Mlangeni was speaking as a family friend. He was a fellow Rivonia trialist of Mandela and Robben Island prison inmate
Memorial service starts without Obama - Sapa
The memorial service for former president Nelson Mandela began without US president Barack Obama and his wife at the FNB stadium in Soweto on Tuesday.
The service began about 40 minutes late and proceeded through a welcome by ANC deputy president Cyril Ramaphosa and party chair Baleka Mbete, the singing of the national anthem, interfaith prayers, and the start of a speech by Mandela's friend Andrew Mlangeni.
Although secret service agents were at one of the entrances, Obama was nowhere in sight by 12.40pm.
The Associated Press reported around 7.30am that Obama's aircraft landed at Waterkloof Air Base in Pretoria after a 16-hour trip from Washington DC.
Obama is scheduled to deliver a 20-minute speech during the memorial service.
Crowd swells at Grand Parade - Sapa
The crowd on the Grand Parade grew on Monday as singing Capetonians arrived for the live screening of a memorial service for former president Nelson Mandela in Johannesburg.
The words "Nelson Mandela, there's no one like him", sung in different languages, echoed across the Parade as hundreds of people were seen coming from the direction of the railway station and taxi rank.
Many of those gathered for the screening donned hats and summer attire, while some brought along umbrellas to protect themselves from the scorching heat.
There was a strong military and police presence.
Parliament worker Siyabulela Mfuyo, 31, was dressed for the occasion in a T-shirt with Mandela's face on and beaded necklaces in the green, black and gold of the African National Congress.
She had been at the parade since 9.30am.
"He fought for our freedom: black, white, all of us," she said.
"Tata left a legacy of listening and speaking to each other, of giving and loving each other regardless."
Zolisa Mfincane, 20, from Mfuleni, said his boss had given him time off from work to attend.
He worked for a camera shop and also photographed weddings and other events in the township.
"Until today, people don't do professional photography, but now they want to do it," he said.
"Mandela inspired me to become a professional photographer."
Also in attendance were around 50 students who were in the country to learn how to speak English and experience the culture.
Language teacher Meagan Starck, 33, said the school had come to pay its respects.
"On Friday, the school held a private memorial and the mood was sombre.
"Everyone was speechless and our host families had to explain what had happened."
The crowd started ululating and cheering when former president Thabo Mbeki and his wife Zanele, were shown entering the FNB stadium on the big screens.
The sight of Mandela's ex-wife Winnie Madikizela-Mandela kissing and embracing Madiba's widow Graca Machel also had the crowd roaring.
Tussle between guards, media - Sapa
There was a tussle between security guards and media at the FNB stadium on Tuesday, ahead of the memorial service for former president Nelson Mandela.
Guards shoved journalists, saying: "Woah, woah... All of you must go outside now."
Graca, Winnie embrace - Sapa
Nelson Mandela's ex-wife Winnie Mandela bent down to embrace Graca Machel before taking her own seat at the former president's memorial service at the FNB Stadium in Soweto on Tuesday.
They held onto each other for a few moments, both clad in black jackets, dresses and turbans.
Winnie took her seat three seats to the left of Graca. She smiled when greeted. Graca stared ahead, her face drawn.
Both women were loudly cheered by the crowd.
African National Congress deputy president Cyril Ramaphosa began welcoming the arriving heads of state at 11.30am.
As he called out their names, the dignitaries walked to the front of the podium to receive what turned out to be mostly applause from the audience.
However, Chinese Vice-President Li Yuanchao was booed.
Former South African presidents FW De Klerk and Thabo Mbeki, as well as United Nations chief Ban Ki-moon and Cuban President Raúl Castro, were all warmly cheered.
Zuma recieves boos, cheers - Sapa
President Jacob Zuma received both cheers and boos as he made his way onto the stage for the memorial service of former president Nelson Mandela at the FNB Stadium in Soweto on Tuesday.
Flanked by two of his four wives, Gloria Bongekile Ngema and Thobeka Stacy Mabhija, he took his seat while greeting various dignitaries.
A number of people in the crowd made a rolling hand signal, usually interpreted to mean change is wanted, as he walked on, dressed in a dark suit.
Today we remember Mandela: Chabane - Sapa
Tuesday's memorial for former president Nelson Mandela was for South Africa and the world to remember him, Minister in the Presidency Collins Chabane said.
Speaking to reporters at FNB Stadium in Johannesburg, where the memorial is taking place, Chabane said the government, Mandela's family and the ANC had pulled together following Mandela's death.
"The president of Afghanistan, [of] Bangladesh, [said] 'Look, we have never seen something like this'," Chabane said.
He said his favourite personal memory of Mandela was on the campaign trail in 1994.
Chabane, who worked with Mandela between 1991 and his retirement, had accompanied Mandela to a rally in the town of Mashashane, which was in the Northern Province at that stage. Chabane, who was secretary of the Northern Transvaal ANC at the time, left for the hotel separately to Mandela's motorcade.
"As I was driving, the car ran out of petrol," Chabane said.
"When Mandela got back, he asked where I was."
Told that Chabane's whereabouts were unknown, Mandela refused to get out the car until he was found.
Mandela's bodyguards eventually found Chabane, and took him back to the hotel.
"That said a lot about who he was," Chabane said.
Mandela died on Thursday in his home in Houghton, Johannesburg. He was 95. He will be buried in Qunu, in the Eastern Cape, on Sunday.
Nelson Mandela's ex-wife Winnie Madikizela-Mandela arrived shortly after 11.30pm at the FNB Stadium to loud cheers from the crowd on Tuesday.
"Winnie, Winnie, Winnie," reverberated through the stadium.
The crowd roared again when she moved to the main stage.
The service, which was scheduled to begin at 11am, was delayed as some dignitaries were still arriving.
Johannesburg mayor a 'chief mourner' - Sapa
Johannesburg mayor Parks Tau is one of three "chief mourners" at the memorial service for former president Nelson Mandela, the city said on Tuesday.
"The City of Johannesburg's executive mayor... has received the honour of being chosen as one of the three chief mourners at... Mandela's memorial and funeral service," spokesman Gabu Tugwana said in a statement.
"Councillor Tau will stand alongside the other two chief mourners, namely a Mandela family member and the President of South Africa Jacob Zuma."
Tugwana said it was customary for the chief mourners to be seated within the inner circle of mourners, and to offer support to the grieving family.
"The status of chief mourner is a privilege and an honour to councillor Tau, who also served as a member of the ANC Orlando West branch with Mandela while he was president of South Africa," he said.
Mandela died at his Houghton, Johannesburg, home on Thursday at the age of 95. He will be buried in Qunu, in the Eastern Cape, on Sunday.
Crowd cheers for Mbeki - Sapa
The crowd at FNB Stadium erupted into loud cheers when former president Thabo Mbeki made his was to the stage on Tuesday.
The crowd roared with cheers and chanted "Mbeki, Mbeki, Mbeki".
The big screens showed a shot of Mbeki who smiled and waved much to the crowds delight.
Mvezo viewing site empty - Sapa
The viewing site at former president Nelson Mandela's birthplace of Mvezo, in the Eastern Cape, was relatively empty on Tuesday.
Less than 20 people had braved the rainy weather to watch former president Nelson Mandela's memorial service being broadcast from Johannesburg on the big screen set up at the local soccer field.
Children played soccer on one side of the pitch.
Few attend Grand Parade memorial - Sapa
Few Capetonians made their way to the Grand Parade in the city centre on Tuesday morning to view the live screening of former president Nelson Mandela's memorial service.
However, a stream of people passing the venue placed flowers or took photographs of the event.
There was a large security presence, including soldiers, police and metro police officers.
Earlier, the SA Police Service led a ceremonial parade in front of City Hall, below the balcony where Madiba made his first speech as a free man.
The city has planned a tribute for Mandela on Wednesday evening at the Cape Town Stadium in Green Point.
Crowd heckles EFF at Mandela memorial - Sapa
A growing crowd at the FNB Stadium heckled EFF members when they appeared on a large screen ahead of the memorial service for former president Nelson Mandela on Tuesday.
Economic Freedom Fighters leader Julius Malema previously led the ANC Youth League, that Mandela once led.
Malema wants to expropriate white farms and nationalize the mining industry without compensation.
He was expelled from the ruling party for ill-discipline. It was not known if he was at Tuesday’s event.
South African and international dignitaries converged on the stadium despite a downpour.
Graca arrives at memorial - Sapa
Graca Machel has made her first public appearance since the death of her husband Nelson Mandela, as she arrived at his memorial service at the FNB Stadium south of Johannesburg on Tuesday.
Dressed in a black turban and furred coat over a long black dress, two women on either side linked their arms with her as she moved slowly ahead.
Her expression was sombre as she made her way to an underground lift.
Mandela family are survivors: Mokonyane - Sapa
Global icon Nelson Mandela's family are doing well in the midst of their mourning, Gauteng premier Nomvula Mokonyane told ENCA news at the FNB Stadium in Soweto, scene of his official memorial service on Tuesday.
"Madiba's family is a family of survivors and this process has shown that strength," she told the TV news station.
The memorial service -- scheduled to start at 11am -- showed that "South Africa is now an assembly of nations".
Mokonyane is set to deliver the vote of thanks at the conclusion of the memorial.
Dressed in a black jacket, ruched dress and thick silver choker, she said: "It's a daunting task, but again it's a mission that has been assigned and I'm quite humbled that I'll be representing South Africa in thanking the world."
She said her thanks would not just be directed to the dignitaries, but also in honour of the "elderly goga" who had braved the weather and sacrificed sleep to be at the memorial.
"When we leave here, we will be better and different people than we were before."
Mandela died at his home in Houghton, Johannesburg, on Thursday at the age of 95. He will be buried in Qunu in the Eastern Cape on Sunday.
Song and dance ahead of service - Sapa
Not even the rain over the FNB Stadium, south of Johannesburg, on Tuesday could stop South Africans and people from around the world converging for the official memorial service for former president Nelson Mandela.
People clad in refuse bags and woolly clothes gathered from the early hours to gain entrance to the 94,000-seater stadium, which was expected to be packed to capacity.
Some people were clad in ANC T-shirts, while others were draped in ANC flags and blankets. Some even wore wigs in the SA flag colours.
The growing vuvuzela-carrying crowd, many drenched from the rain, sang and danced ahead of the service, in what was seen as a vibrant and celebratory atmosphere under grey clouds.
A sea of colourful umbrellas formed across the stadium as the sporadic drizzle continued. A festive mood lingered.
Groups of mourners marched in between the seats of the stadium singing struggle songs. Another crowd took refuge from the rain in the covered seating on the top tier and sang in tribute to the Nobel laureate.
"UMandela lo, abamaziyo, abakaze bambone [This is Mandela, the one who is known, they've never seen anyone like him]," the section chanted.
Mandela died at his home in Houghton, Johannesburg, on Thursday night at the age of 95. He will be buried in Qunu in the Eastern Cape on Sunday.
"No amount of bad weather could stop me from paying my respects to president Mandela," said Pule Ngoako from Modimolle in Limpopo.
"He suffered for my freedom... It is sad to accept that this day and other days to come in my life will be without Mandela"
A large stage was erected on one side of the stadium pitch, while a separate, smaller stage had been positioned to the left of it.
Flowers were placed on both stages, and military helicopters flying overhead were greeted by a roar from the crowd.
A large contingent of heads of state, dignitaries, and celebrities were expected to attend Tuesday's proceedings, scheduled to get underway at 11am.
Groups of soldiers and security officials in reflector vests continued to line the aisles of the vast arena.
"We are talking about Madiba here, so there is no margin for error," said police ministry spokesman Zweli Mnisi on security measures.
Tshepo Moeketsi from Magaliesburg said he just had to be there.
"How do you pay back a man like Madiba, no amount of money can pay his love for his people. I had to be here to pay my respect and thank Tata for what he had done for us."
Among the various tunes being sung were "Shosholoza", "Nelson Mandela my president", "Nelson Mandela ga go ya tshwanang le ena (Nelson Mandela there is no one like him)", "Agenda ya makapitali asiyifune ya bulala u Madiba (Agenda of capitalists we do not want it, it killed Madiba)", and Johnny Clegg's "Asimbonanga".
Gates open at Ellis Park - Sapa
Some 50 people had gathered when the gates opened at Ellis Park Stadium in Johannesburg on Tuesday morning, an overflow venue where people can follow the official memorial service for former president Nelson Mandela.
The service at the FNB Stadium south of Johannesburg is scheduled to start at 11am.
At Ellis Park, a stage was set up at the northern side of the stadium where Mandela famously presented the Webb Ellis Cup to victorious Springbok captain Francois Pienaar at the 1995 Rugby World Cup wearing a replica jersey.
Ndzo Mtyi, a director of a Johannesburg-based earth-moving company, brought four of his shop stewards to represent their workers as they mourned the death of the global icon.
Mtyi said he met the former statesman at the unveiling of a 30m statue of Mandela at the Groot Drakenstein Prison, formerly known as Victor Verster, where Madiba spent the last three of his 27 years in prison.
"We decided to pay tribute to the old man, and I've decided to bring the shop stewards to represent the workers as we still have to push for production," Mtyi said.
"We honour the sacrifices he made for all races and for us to have this democracy. It is just a pity that we are not living up to his legacy."
Mandela died at his home in Houghton, Johannesburg, on Thursday at the age of 95. He will be buried in Qunu in the Eastern Cape on Sunday.
People unite for Mandela - Sapa
From Harare and London, to Sydney and Addis Ababa, people from all walks of life have come together around the world to celebrate former president Nelson Mandela's life, government said on Tuesday.
"We view this as Madiba's legacy living on in the lives and values of people all over the world," acting spokeswoman Phumla Williams said in a statement.
In the past few days, people united in villages, towns and cities to share their love for Madiba, she said.
"As government, we want to thank South Africans and our friends and partners around the world for the overwhelming response... ."
Mandela died at his Houghton home in Johannesburg on Thursday night, at the age of 95. He will be buried in Qunu in the Eastern Cape on Sunday.
Williams said that in South Africa, Madiba's legacy lived on in the democratic dispensation.
"Madiba's legacy lives on in our commitment to ensure a just and fair society for all."
Williams welcomed international royalty, heads of state and dignitaries to South Africa.
Large crowds converged on the FNB Stadium south of Johannesburg on Tuesday from the early hours for the official memorial service for Mandela, scheduled to start at 11am.
Williams said once the stadium was full, mourners would be directed to other overflow venues where large screens had been set up.
"We expect that at some stage all of these venues will be filled to capacity, and we therefore ask kindly that people co-operate with authorities if they were to be turned away," she said.
"We ask that where people are turned away they respond with the dignity and decency that Madiba would expect in a situation like that."
Obama in south africa for mandela memorial service - Sapa-AP
President Barack Obama is opening a day of remembrance and celebration for his personal hero Nelson Mandela, arriving in South Africa for a memorial service honoring the anti-apartheid icon who died last week at age 95.
Air Force One touched down at a military base near Johannesburg on a rainy Tuesday morning. First lady Michelle Obama, former President George W. Bush and his wife, Laura, and former Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton joined Obama on the 16-hour flight from Washington. Former Presidents Bill Clinton and Jimmy Carter were also scheduled to attend the memorial service, but travelled to South Africa separately.
Obama will be among the speakers at Tuesday's memorial, joining tens of thousands of South Africans and dozens of dignitaries at the outdoor stadium in Johannesburg.
Signaling Language Gibberishly Signed/Signalled and Signified
Trouble-Makers: The Follies and Comedic Errors of the Ruling African Elite in Mzantsi
The Case of The Cattle Calling the Pot Black
This was a day of the Media and the type of reportage above is in within the them that there is a media war that was part of the commemoration and I am using it in the Hub to capture the essence of the commemoration and begin to discuss in a bit, the Uncontrollable crowd against the program of the ANC.
The ANC had an agenda and they were going to pull a multi-pronged approach to garnering votes and enhancing their international image. They told the citizens of Soweto and throughout the nation that nobody should bring their car. Instead they arranged to bus-in their audience. There were really set up for a captured audience and they were anticipating that they will pull-off this farce.
It rained consistently and it was a somewhat chilly rain. People had been hanging around FNB since the AM in order to enter the stadium. All the while, they were singing. In the Township and in an African language it was an Umlindelo/Moletelo[A Wake] because someone in their larger and extended family, also their leader had passed away.
So, they hit an all nighter, as this is more closer to African culture, customs traditions and sacred rites and practices. So that, the people had come to celebrate their way, and the ANC was preparing for an extravaganza of World leaders and World Celebrities and any Who's Who of any stripe or origin.
By the time the program kicked off at eleven in the morning, the people were already camped there singing and dancing,so that, by the time the erstwhile visitors were about render accolades about Mandela, the people were already on the roll with their own Agenda. The ANC had programming and expected some decorum, they say, from their polity. The masses were in the mood of singing and dancing, besides, that kept them warm in the cold rain.
What I can discern is the mistake made by the ANC on this day. They did not consult enough with the masses as to whether they too might want to do anything. So that the only viable participatory outlet for the crowd in the stadium was to sing and dance and enjoy each other's company. I have already touched upon this funeral 'decorum' that is characteristic of the people of Soweto having to live their lives around various funeral all throughout the week.
So that, as soon as the show got on the way and speakers began delivering their well set speeches or whatever, as can be read above from the events of the days' articles above, the crowd was already jazzed-up and going at it, and warming up to a crescendo of joyous and semi-rebellious celebrations.
The ANC Took over the time in the stadium with the AP system, and the problem from the start was that not too many people could hear them because there was so much raucous, singing, dancing groups and troupes and large bodies of groups shaking and bouncing on the stands, heaving singing.
This was occasionally broken by the ANC taking over the programming and masses singing with ever increasing intensity. The low level intensity clashing of the crowd and the controlling ANC, between other speakers who the masses in the stands were not actually hearing clearly, the crowd kept of carrying on as they do in many funerals throughout the week.
They engaged and communicated with each much more than listening or watching what was going on on the speakers stage. If they were not talking to each other, they were singing and dancing with all earnestness, and this eventually caused the ANC to react.
I for one thought that ANC should have really left them alone, but that was not to be. As can be seen above, Ramophosa tried to take over, apparently he was not doing so well because he had to reproach and intone, cajole and try to quell their enthusiasm, and using the screen in the stadium to communicate order, that they really were met with an out of control crowd, and that was embarrassing.
I guess, to the ANC wanted to present a professional-orderliness and seriously in control government; the people really did not care and if one were to ask some of them randomly as to what was that all about, none know nor understand what you are asking them, and they did not care anyway.
It is like the crowd was tuning out and showing that they did were not recognizing the ANC. They booed at many speakers and things that rubbed them wrong or they had a gripe or beef with. What I am saying is that what was happening between the ANC outside FNB, came to life within the stadium, Strangely enough, as I have noted deeper into the Hub, the name 'Rolihlahla' meant "Trouble-Maker" and the crowd was making trouble with their going ons and selective participation.
President Obama in his debuting speech won them over, albeit for a short time, the articles above give a picture as to who was booed, dismissed, ignored and so forth. My point in the up up to thus far is that there are problems in South Africa, and the ANC was not smart enough to know how to handle them.They were in a hurry to get the 'show on the road', and forgot that they had a crowd that had not stopped for them to even start their program.
Mandela was a political and tactical leader. The people, without him having to say so over the years have imbibed that quality from him. The Masses in South Africa are not dumb nor easily fooled, although they take long to catch in taking action. they eventual do, in many cases. Obviously there were too many nuanced things that contributed to that spirit of not caring, beneath was a disdain for corruption, malfeasance, theft, lying, scandals and so forth that was displayed and parlayed by the ANC
So that the use of the Big Screen and its images afforded the crowd a chance to freely respond or not to any body. Just like the speakers who were not paid attention to, that , this makes the whole day interesting and unforgettable window, may, of things to come.
Manipulation of images in the stadium was a way of the ANC to try and manage entropy. But this handed back the government unexpected reaction and feedback. This is important to note because this whole thing of the Mandela memorial was fraught with disguised politically inclined tendencies and planning, and also they had prepared agendas and images of subterfuge. By this I mean there were invisible counterspin interests under the guise of celebrating the memorial,
The thinking was that they can utilize the screen, AP system and the Star power [images on the screen] in the stadium to pacify the crowd, but that did not manifest in the intended and desired way for the government, but that had unintended consequences. As a way of applying propaganda to maintain control and put people into the desired and target action, the ANC was startled by the reaction to their using the images and media to achieve this in the stadium when the crowd became unruly and ignored or selectively participated outside the influence and intention of the government media and images. We learn from Noam Chomsky that:
"[The] American business community was also very impressed with the propaganda effort. They had a problem at that time. The country was becoming formally more democratic. A lot more people were able to vote and that sort of thing. The country was becoming wealthier and more people could participate and a lot of new immigrants were coming in, and so on.
So what do you do? It's going to be harder to run things as a private club. Therefore, obviously, you have to control what people think.
"There had been public relation specialists but there was never a public relations industry. There was a guy hired to make Rockefeller's image look prettier and that sort of thing. But this huge public relations industry, which is a U.S. invention and a monstrous industry, came out of the first World War. The leading figures were people in the Creel Commission. In fact, the main one, Edward Bernays, comes right out of the Creel Commission. He has a book that came out right afterwards called Propaganda.
"The term "propaganda," incidentally, did not have negative connotations in those days. It was during the second World War that the term became taboo because it was connected with Germany, and all those bad things. But in this period, the term propaganda just meant information or something like that. So he wrote a book called Propaganda around 1925, and it starts off by saying he is applying the lessons of the first World War.
"The propaganda system of the first World War and this commission that he was part of showed, he says, it is possible to "regiment the public mind every bit as much as an army regiments their bodies." These new techniques of regimentation of minds, he said, had to be used by the intelligent minorities in order to make sure that the slobs stay on the right course. We can do it now because we have these new techniques.
"This is the main manual of the public relations industry. Bernays is kind of the guru. He was an authentic Roosevelt/Kennedy liberal. He also engineered the public relations effort behind the U.S.-backed coup which overthrew the democratic government of Guatemala.
"His major coup, the one that really propelled him into fame in the late 1920s, was getting women to smoke. Women didn't smoke in those days and he ran huge campaigns for Chesterfield. You know all the techniques—models and movie stars with cigarettes coming out of their mouths and that kind of thing. He got enormous praise for that. So he became a leading figure of the industry, and his book was the real manual."
Chomsky informs us about what Bernays, one of the fathers of Public Relations achieved and perceived of the use of propaganda. Application of this coercive mode of consent is explained in-depth by Bernays when he writes:
"THE conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country.
We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of.
"This is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organized. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society.
"Our invisible governors are, in many cases, unaware of the identity of their fellow members in the inner cabinet.
"They govern us by their qualities of natural leadership, their ability to supply needed ideas and by their key position in the social structure. Whatever attitude one chooses to take toward this condition, it remains a fact that in almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by the relatively small number of persons—a trifling fraction of our hundred and twenty million—who understand the mental processes and social patterns of the masses. It is they who pull the wires which control the public mind, who harness old social forces and contrive new ways to bind and guide the world.
"In theory, every citizen makes up his mind on public questions and matters of private conduct. In practice, if all men had to study for themselves the abstruse economic, political, and ethical data involved in every question, they would find it impossible to come to a conclusion about anything.
"We have voluntarily agreed to let an invisible government sift the data and high-spot the outstanding issues so that our field of choice shall be narrowed to practical proportions. From our leaders and the media they use to reach the public, we accept the evidence and the demarcation of issues bearing upon public questions; from some ethical teacher, be it a minister, a favorite essayist, or merely prevailing opinion, we accept a standardized code of social conduct to which we conform most of the time.
"In theory, everybody buys the best and cheapest commodities offered him on the market. In practice, if every one went around pricing, and chemically testing before purchasing, the dozens of soaps or fabrics or brands of bread which are for sale, economic life would become hopelessly jammed. To avoid such confusion, society consents to have its choice narrowed to ideas and objects brought to its attention through propaganda of all kinds. There is consequently a vast and continuous effort going on to capture our minds in the interest of some policy or commodity or idea.
"It might be better to have, instead of propaganda and special pleading, committees of wise men who would choose our rulers, dictate our conduct, private and public, and decide upon the best types of clothes for us to wear and the best kinds of food for us to eat. But we have chosen the opposite method, that of open competition. We must find a way to make free competition function with reasonable smoothness. To achieve this society has consented to permit free competition to be organized by leadership and propaganda.
"Some of the phenomena of this process are criticized—the manipulation of news, the inflation of personality, and the general ballyhoo by which politicians and commercial products and social ideas are brought to the consciousness of the masses. The instruments by which public opinion is organized and focused may be misused. But such organization and focusing are necessary to orderly life.
"As civilization has become more complex, and as the need for invisible government has been increasingly demonstrated, the technical means have been invented and developed by which opinion may be regimented."
With the printing press and the newspaper, the railroad, the telephone, telegraph, radio and airplanes, ideas can be spread rapidly and even instantaneously over the whole of America.
H. G. Wells senses the vast potentialities of these inventions when he writes in the New York Times:
"Modern means of communication—the power afforded by print, telephone, wireless and so forth, of rapidly putting through directive strategic or technical conceptions to a great number of cooperating centers, of getting quick replies and effective discussion—have opened up a new world of political processes. Ideas and phrases can now be given an effectiveness greater than the effectiveness of any personality and stronger than any sectional interest. The common design can be documented and sustained against perversion and betrayal. It can be elaborated and developed steadily and widely without personal, local and sectional misunderstanding."
What Mr. Wells says of political processes is equally true of commercial and social processes and all manifestations of mass activity. The groupings and affiliations of society to-day are no longer subject to "local and sectional" limitations.
But today, because ideas can be instantaneously transmitted to any distance and to any number of people, this geographical integration has been supplemented by many other kinds of grouping, so that persons having the same ideas and interests may be associated and regimented for common action even though they live thousands of miles apart.
It is extremely difficult to realize how many and diverse are these cleavages in our society. They may be social, political, economic, racial, religious or ethical, with hundreds of subdivisions of each.
This invisible, intertwining structure of groupings and associations is the mechanism by which democracy has organized its group mind and simplified its mass thinking. To deplore the existence of such a mechanism is to ask for a society such as never was and never will be. To admit that it easts, but expect that it shall not be used, is unreasonable.
Emil Ludwig represents Napoleon as "ever on the watch for indications of public opinion; always listening to the voice of the people, a voice which defies calculation. 'Do you know,' he said in those days, 'what amazes me more than all else? The impotence of force to organize anything.'"
It is the purpose of this media section of Mandela to be put in proper perspective and context within where it takes place in a mediarized environ. Analyzing and breaking it down help explain the meaning of the commemoration in terms of the masses-the stadium crowd being a microcosm thereof), and the use of the media/propaganda, by the government-and the outcomes thereof.
This invisible, intertwining structure of groupings and associations is the mechanism by which democracy has organized its group mind and simplified its mass thinking. To deplore the existence of such a mechanism is to ask for a society such as never was and never will be. To admit that it easts, but expect that it shall not be used, is unreasonable.
Emil Ludwig represents Napoleon as "ever on the watch for indications of public opinion; always listening to the voice of the people, a voice which defies calculation. 'Do you know,' he said in those days, 'what amazes me more than all else? The impotence of force to organize anything.' (Bernays)
As the ANC 'expertly' attempted to control the Public mind, and was seeking public acceptance for a particular ideas/images and(program), it was attempting to do within a modern democratic scheme with this new way of using propaganda, and because of the other unforeseen outcomes, came to loggerheads with their supposedly captured audience.
Bernays informs us that:
" It is not sufficient to understand only the mechanical structure of society, the groupings and cleavages and loyalties. An engineer may know all about the cylinders and pistons of a locomotive, but unless he knows how steam behaves under pressure he cannot make his engine run. Human desires are the steam which makes the social machine work. Only by understanding them can the propagandist control that vast, loose-jointed mechanism which is modern society."
Mandela's passing and commemoration is not just a picayune side issue and act. It is a large event of a man who commanded very much respect and popularity. The new and modern media propagandists and their application of the new and emerging and converging media gizmos and their techniques, are apt to be met by a technological and media savvy audience, as in the case of the stadium mourners.
These too, have/had their own agenda, carelessly ignored by the ANC and their media Public Relations specialist, that the public mind, too, has its own agenda: to mourn, sing, being sagacious in the spirit of their leader who was a trouble-maker. The ANC felt that the crowd in the stadium were 'trouble-makes', and that this was 'embarrassing'(a la Ramaphosa) to the government and this then, I speculate, might have the government think that it must have been instigated by the detractors of the ANC and maybe they might be thinking that something has to be done about it moving on forward to the local and national general elections next year. And ANC received a resounding rejection in 2016 in their losses in the Local elections.
At the same time, the ANC has been plagued mismanagement, bad organization and hiring unqualified "Sign Language interpreters who were using hand signals which was gibberish to the Deaf of South africa and the world.
Yet, I saw from the crowd reaction a manifest spirit of the man they had come to celebrate and commemorate. His nature and being was captured and encapsulated-possessed and entered into the spiritual happiness that was displayed by the crowd in the stadium. This issue is one of the bungling operations that are endemic in ANC rule, and the way it assigns roles and job in South Africa using nepotism, favoritism, cronyism-allocating important and key position to friends and families who have no idea or inkling what they are doing or supposed to do.
There are many in the ANC administration and parliament and local structures who are not totally qualified for the positions of they hold or the jobs they are doing. This is what the masses have been decrying, and the ANC, with the "Fake Sign language Interpreter", in what they presented as a world stage and event, came through and exposed themselves as to what/how and why the posting of this Hub things have been running in the country for the past twenty years. Here is the story of the Fake Sign Language "Interpreter" as reported by AP:
"While millions across the globe were inspired and moved by speeches made at former South African President, Nelson Mandela’s memorial service on Tuesday, the international deaf community has expressed outrage over what they say was a fake sign language interpreter.
"To those outside the deaf community, the sign language interpreter at the memorial may have looked like he was working very hard, translating the spoken words into gestures for four hours.
"But according to an association for the deaf community in South Africa, he was a complete fake; his actions may have outraged deaf people around the world.
"The service to commemorate the revered statesman, who died last week at the age of 95, was broadcast to millions of viewers around the world.
"While dignitaries addressed the crowd at Johannesburg’s FNB stadium, the suited man with a security pass produced a series of hand signals that experts say meant nothing.
"According to a report on Australian site, SBS News, the interpreter was simply making up his own signs, it said.
“The structure of his hand, facial expressions and the body movements did not follow what the speaker was saying,”
“What happened at the memorial service is a truly disgraceful thing to see – it should not happen at all.”
Another source confirmed that the unidentified man seen around the world on television next to leaders including United States President Barack Obama may have been a fake interpreter.
"The national director of the Deaf Federation of South Africa, Bruno Druchen, told the Associated Press that the fake interpreter “was moving his hands around but there was no meaning in what he used his hands for.”
“The so-called ‘interpreter’ who interpreted at the official memorial service for late former president Nelson Mandela at FNB stadium has been dubbed the ‘fake interpreter’ and the deaf community is in outrage,” DeafSA said in a statement.
"The man did not use facial expressions, which in South African sign language are an important part of communication, and the hand signals he used were meaningless, it said
“The signs (self-invented signs) the interpreter used are not used in South African Sign Language and it is a total mockery of the language,” DeafSA said.
"He also did not use the established, recognized signs for the names of Mandela, South African President Jacob Zuma and his predecessor, Thabo Mbeki, among others," DeafSA added.
“This proves that he is not involved in the deaf community and doesn’t know South African Sign Language,” it said.
“To the best of our knowledge, he has not undergone any formal training in South African Sign Language or Interpreting offered by any recognized institution which offers these training courses.”
"Three other sign language experts said the man was not signing in South African or American sign languages and could not have been signing in any other known sign language because there was no structure to his arm and hand movements. South African sign language covers all of the country’s 11 official languages, according to the federation.
The scandal over the interpreter is another indication of bad organization of the historic memorial service at a huge soccer stadium. Other difficulties included public transportation breakdowns which hindered mourners from getting to the event and a faulty audio system that prevented many of the tens of thousands in the stadium from hearing the leaders’ speeches. In an apparent security failure, police did not search the first wave of crowds arriving at the stadium.
South African government spokeswoman Phumla Williams said she could not immediately comment on the allegations:
“I am still trying to get the feedback from the people who hired him. I am not in a position to respond,” she said.
“Once I have that information I will respond.”
"World leaders, celebrities, religious figures and tens of thousands of ordinary South Africans all came together to pay tribute to Mandela at the Tuesday service."
It is true and sad that the ANC government, which was castigating the stadium crowed had their ineptness exposed and put on display for the world to know; they were not even aware that the people were not receiving their AP sound and message. That in of itself show what kind of government the Africans of South Africa have to deal with. Can anyone really blame them for being perceived as 'trouble-makes'?
No, the ANC has itself to blame for the dumb and mismanaging way they have been running the country, thus far. Shame on the ANC government for failing to bus people to the stadium, faulty PA system, Fake Sign interpreters, majority of the people not searched that entered the stadium and a host of other mismanagement failures that were a let-down on the event of Rolihlahla. And yet, the ANC had the audacity to chastise the stadium crowd that they are 'embarrassing'. The. The case of the kettle calling the pot black.
One other Hub the reader/viewer might like to read a Hub I wrote and dubbed "Apartheid's Colonial Health and Mental Disorders: Fractured Consciousness and Shattered Identities." In this Hub I have just recommended, there is a lot about the dirty tricks department and what happened to african people and leaders today in Mzantsi. the Book on BOSS should be borne in mind when reading the recommended Hub.
Amandla! Matla! Krag! Power!
UMlindelo/Moletelo(Wake) The Struggle Will Continue Rolihlahla
On The African Customary, Traditional, Ancestral Spiritual Tilt and Cultural Bent
There is the convenient way of forgetting and ignoring of significance of African culture, customs, traditions, traditional rites and practices and music/song. Or that it is either unknown, either purposefully overlooked or that its importance neglected and subjected to ridicule or as regarded as unworthy of even being discussed nor talked about. In therms of funeral rights, customs tradition and sacred rites and practices, this was an important day for the Africans of Mzantsi.
The viewing of his body lying in state in Pretoria, where is is said 2000+ more people an hour passing through to just catch a glimpse of him demonstrates/reminds us for the seriousness of what had just happened to them and their leader. This brings to mind the yesterday saga in the stadium and what happened to their spirit themselves(the people).
In our African culture, when one exalts and sings for, or calls the ancestors using their names and clan names etc., the ancestors have a way of responding and communing with those who call them. The people were singing and calling upon Mandela, and in various other songs for the past leaders for whom they have songs for them, too, that were sung in the commeration.
It is my contention that the sprit of "Rolihlahla" was present yesterday with, within and inside the souls/sprits of the masses, that this is one facet and aspect of African culture that is least understood or known by foreigners and other people who do not really know traditional, customary culture along with traditional rights ad practices of the people of Mzantsi.
I have already touched-up on the Customary/Traditional/Cultural meaning and observation of the deceased and the understanding and practices required for and by the ancestors or those who have passed on, which is practiced by the Africans here in South Africa in one of my published Hubs here on HubPages.
It is therefore my contention that "Rolihlahla" was with/possessed those singing and dancing stadium crowd honoring and remembering him in the soaking cold rain; so that, as they remembered him, and warmed themselves bodily(by dancing) and spiritually(singing) for him/to him, in our understanding of the workings of our culture, he was present with us, he manifested his spirit in our spirits/souls, and thus the very "trouble-Maker" they had come to honor and commemorate, took over their spirits in singing and dance-which the ANC saw as the crowd making trouble for them; and they were . This is an important observation and reality.
The singing and dancing was calling and being with the spirit of the one they had come to honor, commemorate, commensurate with, banter and cajole him, and and speak to and with him in the spiritual/ancestral realm, and that this was done with happiness and dancing and singing African songs of Mzantsi.
What we saw in the stadium were the masses holding "Umlindelo/Moletelo (Wake) with Tata, Rolihlahla Nelson Mandela - who is by now very close in ancestral pantheon to Moholomohol/Mvelinqange - the Forefather and greatest of the great of the Mzantsi ancestral pantheon and the rest of all the ancestors-some of whom I have mentioned at the beginning of this Hub and many others to numerous to enumerate here.
There are many other practices that should have been appplied since he was a "King" for all practical purposes. And in real and concrete terms, he comes from the Royal family of the Thembu people, and this, by default, makes him a King/chief, not only of the Thembu, which he could have been, and was always regarded as such by the Thembu..
But he was also the King of the Whole peoples of South Africa, and more so, of Orlando West and Orlando East, and the Greater Soweto Metropolis/Suburbs/Ghettos/TConcentration Camps/Townships. The Africans of Mzantsi will have to begin to reevaluate concretely their understanding and application of their culture now, more than ever.
This aspect of our African culture that is the funeral custom and traditions of our dead, is or should we say funerary practices, need to be written and talked about more and reintroduced to the masses of the people and to suit the present-day South Africa..
Another point to ponder is the swirling rumors that have gripped and are captivating/capturing the imagination, mind and soul of the people. I will simply say that people need to regroup and know that this is the beginning of a new South Africa without Mandela being there. This is the time to contemplate and mull over this reality and its future in real and concrete terms. There is already corruption and bad governance. People have to begin to figure out ways of using lessons from our past and most recent suffering and conform/condition that to our will and wishes-from now into the future.
In viewing his body lying in state in Pretoria, one can see how the people really miss and loved Mandela. Robala Hantle Roliihlahla/Lala kahle Rolihlahla-Sleep well and rest in peace, Rolihlahla.
The Military /wing, Mkhonto and the people + Winnie, formed by Mandela, paying respect
The Death Of A King(Chief) and First African President Of Mzantsi
The passing of Mandela brings me now to the concrete nitty-gritty of African History, Culture, Customs, Traditions , Sacred and Practices, Language, Music and Dance. I have written couple articles one was titled, "Restoration of African South African Historical Consciousness: Culture, Customs, Traditions & Practices - Pondo/amaXhosa," "South African Culture, Customs And Practices Writ Large: Re-Morphed Cultural Renaissance Against Dysfunctional Existence," and its sequel, "History, Culture Customs, Traditions and Practices of the Africans of South Africa: Deconstructing Historical Amnesia." The last two Hubs mentioned above are still being developed and ongoing, especially the one one "Dysfunction."[All Of the above-,emtpned Hubs have already been published here on HubPages.
This is not necessarily hawking my wares, but specifically giving a much broader background of what I am going to talk about. The articles above were designed to put the African reality into the context that we are not 'tribes, but one nation with a diverse, similar and variegated culture, customs, traditions, and so forth. The passing of Mandela, then, will compels us to have to put our culture customs, etc., in some form of historical context and perspective from an African-centered Historical/Cultural/Customary/Traditional context and African ideological reality.
The culture, customs and Traditions of South Africa are still there, it's just that in recent times these have been ignonred and frowned upon by the present "Modernized" African Elite. This group and their children spend their time honing their perceptions of being Europeans, and living the European way. Yet, in secret, some of them surreptitiously creep into the African World in search of the consulting with the African doctors and herbalists, and trying to imbibe culture, custom and so forth with their peopleBut in special awkward times, they have been deriding and scoffing at their own indigenous African cultures when they are with or around people whom they perceive to have the better-cultured and are advanced ethnic groups thantheir own
Like I have partially pointed out above that the ANC was running pell-mell into presenting an extravaganza of the 'likes' not seen before and they ignored consulting with the people and soliciting from them what their participation was going to be. They went with the media and entertainment concepts of the American Public Relations crews and transplanted that into the middle of the african masses in FNB which, to the ignorance of these PR juggernauts and Tech/IT Nerds and programmers, they did not know about what a "Funeral" means and what that entails here in African Mzantsi. They were all set and prepared to transplant Hollywood's version conception and presentation of such events(akin to the Super Bowl-Oscars-celebritiy jamboree-reaitys-show coverage) for the Africans of Mzantsi.
Yes, they were able to do all that High-Tech Stuff and Star Power to run their show. But, the Culture, customs, traditions,sacred rites and their practices held sway, whether consciously or unconsciously, proving in many ways that they are still relevant and reign supreme. What I am talking about is that consultation should have been done on/with the Xhosa People on how the program the commemoration and funeral festivities were to be carried-out, and that the "Star Power" should not have been the main narrative and attraction, and expect that the Africans of South Africa were supposed follow on a program for Tata/Ntate Madiba, and let the World watch and participate in what would have been presented for the world's edification, and have the indigenous Africans, us, sit and watch the world participate in our stead.
This has been wrong on many levels. Disrespect of our Cultures and customs/traditions led to a dough-like flop of the whole shindig. These Africa South African lackeys(ANC) the would-be-pleasers were exposed and they shifted the blame onto the stadium crowd's 'trouble-making' behavior.
Well, what they did not know or pay attention to was the fact that , Yes, Mandela has Passed-but he was not only a one-time-president of South Africa and that the world respected and adored leader-was not lost to his people; he was of royalty and we might as well say in the African context of seeing and thinking, he was a King(chief), but I have a problem with this term-... [Chief]. Yes, maybe they will do a part of this tradition in Qunu, Eastern Cape, where they ar going to intern his remains. But it was at the commemoration that the African side of Funeral traditions should have been displayed and manifested/performed.
Not observing and respecting our cultural traditional practices of sacred rights and traditions in terms of funerals, has made us look confused and half-cooked European cultured Africans with no Africanness being brought to the front in the picture. I call it as I see it. I will attempt below to give a sense of the African customs, traditions, culture and what Africans, from a Pondo perspective, i.e., what it is that they do when a King dies.
The Death Of A King: An African-Customary, Traditional and Cultural Point Of view
This part is in honoring and presenting a much more deeper understanding story/history of Mandela and what his position and role in the community was-and who was his community/like. The piece below is a presentation making clear/demonstrating the importance of African culture in matters of funerals(specifically for Kings/chiefs). The historical/cultural excerpt below is in honor and commemoration of Rolihlahla Mandela
A King/chief was always on familiar terms with his people. He was accessible to any man at the great place[say, Palace]. When men came to the great palace on business, as in the case of "Imbizo"(roughly, meeting/gathering), they sit in the "Inkundla" with the King/chief. Old Councillors who come may chaff/banter with his womenfolk.
The King/chief goes about to beer drinks and visit also get involved in dances and singing/celebrating with his people in different places and areas throughout his dominion. He is treated with respect all around. Whenever the people know he is coming, they set a stool/chair aside for him, and he is given free beer, even if it happiness that in that part it is being sold(by the way, this was a rarity in the partied.celebration of African performing their cultural practices and comportment).
Men raise an arm in greeting as they enter the hut/house the King/chief is in. Commoners referred to him by his name, but in most cases, "umhlekazi(The noble and good-looking one), "isibulizo/istahkezelo, the said,"Inkosi"(King), or clan name and self identification within that specific clan when, in most cases, about to address him. Those who were allowed to use his personal name to his face, were his relatives. Yet, despite this formality, the chief and his people chatted and joked with him and made jokes in his presence. And one of the things that at times they do, the people would constantly and continually pester him for tobacco.
This piece here I am onto is specifically about the Pondo People. Some of their practices were intermingled or fused with the traditions, customs traditions of the Zulus, which although they were South African and African in origin, they had a diverse nature that was specifically Zulu. The Pondo, had run away from Chaka during his military forages throughout the country, and they escaped to into the Areas of the amaXhosa, with whom they lived and carved a cultural, customary and traditional niche for themselves by culling and infused and melded the amaXhosa ways into their culture.
The Death Of A King/chief
To the people, when their King dies, this is immediately made known to the public. The Pondo bury their King/chief as any head of an "Umzi"(Homestead), at the gate of his 'kraal'(whole complex). The imiZizi and some of the amaMbo clans, as the amaDiba, bury their Kings/chiefs in the woods. Their practice of burying their dead in the wood is explained by the Pondo that it had been a custom of the amaChaka(Zulus). The imiZizi have lived amongst the abaMbo and taken over many of their customs. They say they bury in the woods becasue it was ordered by the first doctors becasue of their medicines
Each King/Chief is buried in different woods, and no one may go to a wood where a chief was buried, or cut grass there, or gather firewood. There was care taken in burying a King'chief and the Kings/chief of use of what type of medicines is unknown.The 'iqungu' the King/chief was feared. The people often speculated that his "mithi"(medicine), 'anesithunzi-'meaning had power unfathomable about his medicines, and they may give 'iqungu'.
Formerly, the burial was sometimes undertaken by the army African-doctor because he was believed and trusted to have more knowldge and an expert in medicine of the King/chief and knew how to counteract them. The body is not touched by his relatives. When Gwadiso, King/chief of the Khonjwayo, died, a European trader and a Malay workman buried him. to the man who buries a King/chief, they are given a beast, and he is called "ubawo'(Father), by the widows of the King/chief
The grave of the King/chief is watched even more carefully that that of a commoner to prevent witches from digging up the bones and resurrecting him and making him an 'isithunzela(Zombie). "Amaphakathi are detailed to watch the grave and the are afterwards rewarded with cattle. The burial procedure and the family mourning is otherwise the same for a chief as a commoner.
The where abouts of graves of Kings/chiefs is remembered for may generations. The King/chief Msiza (between whom and Faku, who died in 1867, there were nine Kings/chiefs) is said to have come from Swaziland with a hunting party, and to have been buried at lusikisiki-Thukela. His son Ncidise's grave in between the "umThambvuna" and "umMzinkulu" rivers, in what is now Natal. Of the succeeding Kings/chiefs Cabe and Gnangatha were buried at Bumazi in Flagstaff district; Bala at 'nGcoya in Lusikisiki district, Citwayo at 'nGquza in luSikisiki; Ndayine and Tahle at 'mZamba in Bizana district.
When the King/chief died, there was a Pondo custom of smelling for maybe having caused the death of the King/chief through sorcery. In most cases no one was found and killed. The sense is that the King/chief put to rest with people. The Pondo have not practiced nor heard of instance where the wives of the deceased King/chief were buried with him,
The genealogy of the Pondo Paramount "chiefs" and their Districts; Also, the Relationship of Clans related to the Royal House
Sacred Rites, Tradition, Taboos and Practices
The respect due to a King/chief from his people is expressed in mourning rites and taboos observed by them. For a district chief all the people of his district go into mourning. For the Paramount chief all the people of his country, except those under chiefs not related to the Nyawuza and having their own army medicines. On the death of Marelane, the people of Sikweleni who have their own medicines went into mourning as they are Nyawuza, the Kwalo because their chiefs are not related.
For a headman there is no general mourning, but some festivities may be stopped for a short time. When a paramount or district chief dies, no big festivals ("Imijadu), ""uku)lobola,or for any other purpose; and the peoples shave their heads and bodies, lay aside their ornaments, and cease to use red clay. Beer drinks continue-'beer is food',, as the Pondo will always point this out. Singing and dancing is resumed by the young people before any Imijadu are held. 'Imijadu' are usually forbidden for about two year, and red clay is also avoided for that time. The taboos are 'to show sorrow that the chief is dead'.
Th mourning period is interesting as being an occasion of the dropping of old customs and the introduction of new ones. In the Nyandeni men shaved after death of Ndamase, and the old head-dress built up with clay (ingcobo) never came into fashion again. Since the death of Bokleni in 1912, the use of red clay has been dropped by many. Ox-racing has not resumed in many parts of the Qawukeni since the death of Marelane, and horse-racing has taken its place."
The excerpt above gives us the cultural sacred rites and their practices as practiced by the Xhosa. The death of one King was the ushering in of new customs and traditions. What I am saying above is that our concrete knowledge of our cultures, customs, traditions etc., should be a prerequisite for every African to get to know and master. Knowing our culture, traditions etc., very well, will make us not have all the disastrous mistake that were in full display in the commemoration of Mandela. In commemorating Mandela, we are also helping to teach and remind our people of Mzantsi all about their cultures, custom, etc.
So much has been written about Tata, and all is good. also, so little is being said or written about the people Tata fought for, his African people, particularly those of his Eastern Cape areas, and also, not much is known about their cultures, customs, traditions, history, sacred rites and practices, music and traditional dresses.
In this Hub this will be addressed in so far as they will help add and highlight the life of this great man from his early beginnings and whence he emerges from. We really have a general idea as to what happened to Tata in gaol. It is also important for us to make sure we record all that happened us under the Apartheid regime, and this present 20 year old government of ours, in order to better understand the present, and from out of it, a much more better and real future will emerge.
Xhosa People In the Traditional Garb
Mzantsi Of the People, For the People And By The People
Remembering and commemorating Mandela includes and involves all aspects and areas. He comes from an intelligent and proud/cultured people. Above I gave a bit on the Mpondo, not that it is peculiar or specific to the Thembu, the clan of Mandela, but the reader/viewer is given a heads-up about the culture, traditions and customs/traditional dress and music of the Xhosa people so that we have a complete picture of Tata.
He is going to be buried in Qunu and the piece above is to give a sense and sensibility as to who these people are, how do they live, dress and carryout their History and culture etc. Today we are facing more informing and good presentations of the culture of Africans of Mzantsi.
There are people who do not see the importance of writing about and presenting our culture and traditions to the world. Then the world will continue to write that culture and its traditions they way they see and deem fit. It is therefore our duty to work hard and compose and inform the world about ourselves with dignity and articulate intelligence. Mandela was the epitomy of all that, and then some.
So that, when the people read that Rolihlahla has been buried in Qunu, the piece above gives them an idea as to who, what and where are they talking about in relation to the resting place of Mandela. All what I am doing is to honor and commemorate Mandela. Also, give the people a historical, traditional, customary road and map about where he comes from. A lot has been written and talked about as to how and when/where he grew up.
The Hub above attempts to paint a picture of the life of Mandela and his people in the Eastern Cape. An attempt is also made to etch into history the whole picture of the man. The man who was a leader of the ANC; a man who went to prison for 27 years; who then was released to become th first president of the free and democratic south Africa; and then he proceed, after one term in office, to become the man of the world.. He lived and survived 27 years after and outside Prison before passing on to the ancestors.
The part about Mandela and his cultural background is important in many ways. It is important to talk about a person one has a somewhat holistic picture of him. Also, this is reeducation for the African people of Mzantsi who, many of them, do not even know about the culture I just wrote about above. Some have heard a bit about it, or others pretend like they have forgotten it.
It is to their benefit that I went to the extent of incorporating various elements of a man, like him or not, was our leader and his being and stature should be used to better ourselves as human beings, after being dehumanized for so long. We do not have the luxury of rejecting his legacy for political/intellectual/ideological gain.
We have to tell the truth about him, his good ends and his bad side. He also had a penchant of acknowledging his mistakes and weaknessess. We have to learn at times that our strengths are not the end of it all. It is also strength to work with and from a weak point, to get used to it and making oneself stronger on that weaker angle.
Right now, as I am onto this Hub, there is a dire need for sanity given the rumors and confusion that is floating around my Township. There is doubt, fear, uncertainty, lies, propaganda, confusion and the whole bit that is gripping the people in my Township.
When the funeral is over, the the furore abates, there will come a time to have a record kept that not only talks or extols the virtues of Mandela, but it should also be a time to draw the attention of the world that the leaders of South Africa are those that are still oppressed. Yes, the majority is dysfunctional but not down and out.
The very state of helplessness we were in during our enslavement under Apartheid and we rose, so shall it be with this time and phase. Tata was forcefield that held it apart and together-the present government, in terms of its people, is imploding on itself, and the rise of a new day and time, also, a relatively new Real-politik and reality is appearing, slbeitslowly, in the horizon. This we shall see and will come topass, and the hope is that there is going to have to be some new ways of being and existing/being here in Mzantsi.
Before, as African people we hurl any accusations or whatever onto others, we are going to have to deal with our dysfunction and fix it for our lives for the human good. We shall have to begin at the beginning in stabilizing and continue building a united nation
Nothing is set in stone, but the whole life of Mandela was intertwined with that of the people of South Africa, even after he drifted away from the pursuing and seeing the world-well, that was time for that and he underwent some dreadful life whilst incarcerated. One just have to ask one of the people that was in Robben Island to know what the Hell of a place it was. There are many who have written about it in various blogs, but, this has to be restated: Mandela was who he was because of his people. Losing sight of the people during this whole time frame about Mandela, is not really understanding that in fact, the most important people are the suffering poor and what they have to do to cope, survive and even tell this story from our own 'people's' perspective. This Hub is mostly about how the people are looking at this passing of Tata, and what they should think they should say and what is going to happen from now on.
So that, it is also important to show the side of which he always insisted upon: that he is an African. Show and tell then is what has been applied in presenting the piece above about the burial of the Kings/chiefs; the sacred rites/taboos and practices thereof; the cultural dresses and the faces of the people. This also informs the world that African South Africans have a culture of their own. The people of the world begin to see us in the light that we present to them. This is an important step, and writing about ourselves in a positive light, makes other people to respect us and know us better..Tata did that very well. We might as well begin to do so ourselves, now that he is gone, be the masters, Kings and autonomous-authentic determiners as to what's good for All the People of Mzantsi; by respecting and acknowledging each others differentness, all settling under the the shade of an African tree, as averred by Robert Sobukwe.
Overnight recording 14 December 2013
The Beautiful Lali's(Homesteads) and Madlela's home of and in Qunu and Mqhekezweni
The Eastern Cape Xhosas And Their Respect For Traditions, Customs and Culture
In anticipation of the cultural traditions and customs in this Hub, I gave a cultural historical background on what might happenen. Although I used the Pondo, it is apparent there is going to be some cultural custom and tradition to be performed by the Thembu where Mandela is going to be interned. Although there are squabbles and problems, which are endemic to all African families today. It is very encouraging and impressive tha this family is going to carry out the tradition of the Thembu Royalty. Even his family is going to follow the custom and traditions of the Thembu that have to be performed and carried out before his internment.
I am using the article below not to highlight the negatives that are taking place in the Mandela family, but the part of the articles that begin to talk about the intention of the family to follow tradition is of importance here. The rituals and traditions will be the most important part of the service/practices and burial of Tata by his royal family.
I am making this follow up because that this will give the sense and history and awareness and applications of culture, customs and traditions/scared rights and practices and their importance and role in the whole cultural Matrix of the Xhosa people. It is also important to include this small article below to begin to remind African people that they have a culture and they have to begin to use it, respect it and abide by it.
One of the interesting parts of the piece below is the fact that Mandela's clan and family are a microcosm of the problems faced by many and the majority of African people. Whatever is happening in terms of internal clashes and problems, and those in the family of Mandela, are not unique to this family, but are the problems that are plaguing and destroying many African families across the land. Many wonder what is really happening to African people in south Africa.
Yanga Sonji/Simon Nare wrote:
Family spokesman Lieutenant-Colonel Themba Mathanzima yesterday could not commit himself to saying Dalindyebo will be leading the ritual.
“The elders will be in charge of the rituals. If the king is present, he is expected to give directions in cultural aspects,” he said.
He emphasised, however, that the family was united in grief.
“I have not seen any squabbles. Everybody is doing their little bit to co-operate,” he said.
“Buleyekhaya” means “come home” in isiXhosa and yesterday the king’s spokesman, Chief Bovulengwe Mtirara said Dalindyebo will be at Mthatha Airport when Madiba’s body is delivered by the military from Waterkloof Military Airport in Pretoria.
Although Mandela has been given a week-long State send-off - including three days lying in state in Pretoria - his family has brought in traditional practices since he died at the age of 95 at his Houghton, Joburg, home last Thursday.
His grandson and Mvezo chief Mandla Mandela led the chanting of Madiba’s traditional name “Aaah! Dalibhunga.”
Family elders including Mandla Mandela led the military procession which carried Madiba’s body to the Union Buildings this week for public viewing to inform his spirit each time that he was moved.
Mtirara did not divulge details, but said Dalindyebo would oversee the Thembu clan rituals until Madiba was put in his final resting place.
“In any family there are differences but with Madiba’s passing we have put them aside to make sure we are united and give Tata a proper sendoff,” said Mtirara.
The abaThembu clan has been rocked by factions and fighting this year but Madiba’s homecoming promises to unite the mighty tribe.
Among the many controversies caused by King Dalindyebo this year, he publicly announced he had joined the DA and said he was leaving the ANC because he disliked President Jacob Zuma.
In response, Chief Thanduxolo Mtirara, chairman of the abaThembu Royal Council, called King Dalindyebo a “headless chicken” saying he didn’t understand his role as a traditional leader.
Also, a statement has been issued by the AbaThembu b Athndiwe Saba as follows:
Mandela’s death is a loss to the royal house of the AbaThembu and the Xhosa, said Xhosa king Zwelonke Sigcawu after paying his respects at the Mandela home in Qunu.
“We went there to thank the family for Mandela and his work. He was close to my father, former king Xolilizwe Sigcawu, so I had to pay my respects,” said the king.
Speaking on behalf of the king, Xhanti Sigcawu said Mandela’s daughters, grandchildren, AbaThembu elders and close family friend Bantu Holomisa were present at today’s visit.
“There has been no change in the family’s state of mourning,” said Xhanti Sigcawu.
He said when Mandela was arrested and taken away for 27 years it hurt both houses, but Madiba had to do it for the freedom that we enjoy today.
The king’s spokesperson went to great lengths to explain that the clans were not the same and that the Xhosa had no say in how Mandela was buried.
“The king will only be a dignitary like everyone else. We have no role in the burial and won’t get involved in Thembu business. We hope everyone will respect that,” Xhanti Sigcawu said.
He also said he did not know if AbaThembu king Buyelekhaya Dalindyebo would play a role at the funeral and would not be drawn into commenting on speculation that he would not attend the funeral.
“As far as we know he should be at the funeral, he is the AbaThembu king,” said Xhanti Sigcawu.
After the briefing, Sigcawu answered questions about Mandela’s body lying in state in Pretoria and how Mthatha locals feel about it.
“According to custom, the body is first only seen by family when they close the deceased’s eyes. It is taken to a mortuary and only visited by family. Close friends only see the body during the morning of the burial. We have never seen this happen, but if the family and government see it fit, we have no say. It is also understandable that the locals would be dissatisfied that they weren’t afforded the same opportunity as those in Pretoria,” he said.
The king made an appeal to all media and mourners to respect the day on which Mandela will be buried and refrain from infringing on the family’s privacy and customs that had to be observed.
Xhosa Rites Planned For Mandela's Burial
Sibongile Khumalo wrote:
In Qunu, Eastern Cape - Traditional Xhosa rites, including the slaughtering of an ox, will accompany Nelson Mandela's burial in his boyhood home of Qunu on Sunday, clan leaders say.
Following a formal state send-off in the capital Pretoria, tradition will take centre stage in a ceremony to be attended by global leaders and specially invited guests.
Overseen by male elders of his clan, the burial will take place inside the family's expansive estate, perched on a hilltop overlooking the rolling plains of the Eastern Cape region.
The slaughtering of an animal - a ritual performed through various milestones of a person's life - will form a crucial part of the event.
“A funeral is an intricate ceremony that involves communicating with the ancestors and allowing the spirit of the departed person to rest,” said Chief Jonginyaniso Mtirara of the Thembu clan that Mandela hails from.
“The spilling of animal blood is a very important part of the burial process,” he said.
An ox will be slaughtered in the morning of the burial, to accompany the spirit of the deceased.
During the ceremony, Mandela will be referred to as Dalibhunga - the name given to him at the age of 16 after undergoing the initiation to adulthood.
Cries of “Aaah! Dalibhunga,” shouted three times, will greet his body as it arrives home, and will be repeated during the ceremony as people pay their last respects.
Xhosa mourners will wear traditional Xhosa regalia, with blue and white beaded head gear and necklaces.
Xhosa speakers are divided into several groups, including the Thembu people, of which Mandela is a member.
Although Mandela never publicly declared his religious denomination, his family comes from a Methodist background.
His marriage in 1998 to his third wife Graca Machel was conducted by a Methodist Church priest, Mvume Dandala, with blessings by various faith leaders including a rabbi.
The commission of traditional affairs in the Eastern Cape region has told the government to “take a back seat” in the preparation and conduct of the burial ritual.
“If the government intervenes, the ancestors will not accept and welcome him, and this will have a detrimental effect on the family members left behind as his spirit will come back to haunt them,” said the head of the commission, Nokuzola Mdenge.
Local people and private contractors have been carefully preparing the family graveyard, shielded from public view by a stone wall and shrubbery.
The site is where three of Mandela's children were reburied in July after their remains were exhumed from Mvezo village, Mandela's birthplace, after a family dispute.
In many rural parts of South Africa, it's common to keep graveyards within the family compound.
Retired anthropologist and historian Mda said the service would not be elevated to the status of a royal funeral, despite his family connections to Thembu royalty.
“He was not a king, his father was not a king as some people would like to believe, he comes from a lower house of the Thembu,” he said.
In July this year's Mandela's eldest daughter, Makaziwe, told the national broadcaster SABC that the family did not want to see their father's grave turned into shrine for pilgrims.
As a result it will not be made accessible to the public.
In Updating the clash of culture and modern approaches of 'invited' guest list is coming to a head with the about 500 members of the neighborhood of Mandela. As I have been trying to say in this Hub, African traditional custom, culture and tradition, which is very important and much observed by the Xhosa people, is continously coming into a serious clash with the Mandela family, the ANC and the ordinary poor people of South Africa,
The article below is precisely about these issues and how when they come to a head what happens. The people are crying foul and that "Mandella is being taken from them, again. I have addressed this part of Mandela 'being taken away from us through his incaceration, and him leaving the preidency after one term and travelling the world, and in the process alienating nd being distanced from his base.
Now, this issue is rearing its head, and there are so many cultural violations that this important man has gotten caught-up with what he had drifted away from, his family, his boyhood people, the people of Soweto and the poor people of South Africa. This is a very important and serious issue because within it lies embedded culture and what ought to be done with and for Mandela, particulalrly when it comes to his people and his relationship with them
This Hub has been mostly focused and was designed and composed to show the relationship of Mandela and his people.. By his people, there seems to have emerged this concern as to whether it was the dignitaries who mattered to him, or matter to his family, or is it a relationship where, just for a whole, it is granted ay all and sundry that Mandela is a leader and person for and of the Africans of South Africa.
The world can claim him as they have, but really, there comes a time when the voiceless voice of the poor and insignificant people of Mzantsi should be accorded the respect and lee-way to be and claim their leader and person they have so so suffered and and died for them-in their millions,
The people of South Africa who fought for him to be safe and be released from jail and saw to it that he was not killed in Jail by making sure he survived to be able to be released against all odds. Whose odds made this possbile? The most important of these were his people, who are being -swep aside, in so many of his later days above ground-after his passing. It is also acknowledged and accepted by the Africans of South Africanthat the world played its part. But also, many people of the African collective have been feeling for a long time that they no more had Mandela, and that even in death their are still being cheated of him and their ownership of him.
The article below is interesting because it captures these cultural contradiction and clashes in stark relief, and for me, it is an announcement for the Africans of Mzantsi that culture still rules, and then there are those who willy-nilly trample upon it in disregard, disdain and negative and dismissive tones, gestures and action-time to call them to order. So that, in viewing and examining our media and its presentation of images and desecration of cultural sacred rites and practices, that this was bound to surface, and now that it has, in this Hub, I saw it appropriate enough to talk about Pondo/Xhosa Culture becasue I was anticipating that the events are going to turn to what is being discussed below:
"Qunu Outraged Over Madiba Snub"
We are informed in this article by Marianne Merten that:
Cape Town - Nelson Mandela’s neighbours in Qunu - at least 500 of them - should be allowed to attend his funeral on Sunday, say traditional leaders who are concerned the villagers won’t make it on to the 4 000-strong guest list.
Former Congress of Traditional Leaders of SA (Contralesa) president and chief of the Gebe tclanin the Eastern Cape, Nkosi Phathekile Holomisa, said funerals were traditionally open to all.
“They are taking (Mandela) away from his people… The people from Qunu, the people who made him, have been denied the opportunity to be with him.”
Nkosi Mfundo Mtirara, spokesman for the Thembu royal house, said that once the family was in Qunu there would be consultations about Sunday’s funeral to ensure all would unfold smoothly.
The funeral will be a careful balancing act between official protocol demanded of such state occasions and the honouring of Xhosa funeral traditions and practices.
Traditionally, funerals are open to anyone and everyone to pay their final respects, say cultural experts and commentators, and often people travel from far and wide to attend burials.
But attendance at Sunday’s state funeral is limited to 4 000, including the family and dignitaries, who must be officially accredited to be accommodated in the giant marquee set up for the occasion.
By Thursday, the Cape Argus had learnt that villagers of Qunu were meeting to decide on the names to be put forward for accreditation for Sunday’s proceedings. Preparations were also under way for local women to cater for the villagers attending the funeral.
A glimpse of sensitivities around funeral customs emerged on Thursday when, following consultations, an official appeal was made for parents not to take their children to view Madiba lying in state at the Union Buildings in Pretoria until later on Friday.
Nokuzola Mndende, director of the Icamagu Institute, said that in Xhosa culture children were informed of a death and that the person would not return, and were kept away from viewing the body.
However, images on TV on Thursday showed children, some carried by adults, passing Mandela’s coffin.
Close Mandela family friend Bantu Holomisa, the United Democratic Front leader who is assisting on the family side with the Qunu funeral preparations, said: “The ancestors are on the ground. The programme is in course as are preparations inside Madiba’s house.”
Preparations at Houghton were also in place, Holomisa added.
Meanwhile, as part of the state’s arrangements for Sunday’s funeral, Government Communication and Information System has confirmed that it is setting up television screens for those who may arrive on the day without accreditation.
This comes in the wake of messages, understood to have been broadcast on radio, regarding the limitations on attendance.
“It worries me that people from surrounding areas are not allowed to attend. That is totally wrong,” Mndende said, adding that Madiba always invited his neighbours, or visited them, in Qunu and therefore at least 500 of the 4 000 should be villagers.
“People must be there. People must sing the songs.”
According to Mndende, Nkosi Holomisa and another source, in terms of traditional funeral practices, Mandela’s journey to Qunu starts at the Houghton home where he died, with an elder talking to Madiba’s body, telling him that the journey is starting.
Each time the body of Mandela is moved, the oldest male descendant in his family will, as part of custom, explain to him what is happening so that his spirit “does not wander”.
That duty is expected to be assigned to his grandson, Mandla Mandela.
Nkosi Holomisa said that the day Mandela died, an elder from the family would have spoken to him before his body was removed from his home.
“It (would have been) explained to him that he was no longer alive and that he was going to be moved away from the house and also told of his next destination, which was in this case the mortuary,” he said.
“On arrival, it (would have been) explained to him what he was doing there.”
Mandela would also have been told of this before his body left the mortuary.
“When the destination is reached, he will again be told. As part of the custom, his body will also have to be taken past his other homes in Johannesburg,” Nkosi Holomisa said.
“When he is at the airport on the way to Qunu, he will be informed.”
Following the funeral, a series of rituals will unfold, including cleansing ceremonies and, after the end of the mourning period, the “bringing back”, or ukubuyiswa, to return the spirit of Madiba, according to one source, for the protection of his children.
According to the official state programme, from Saturday the SANDF will be in charge of the body’s transport to Qunu and will perform ceremonies, among them with guards of honour.
The ANC leadership will be joined by Cosatu leaders for a private ceremony at Waterkloof Air Force Base early on Saturday before the journey to Qunu begins.
This week the Mandela family again acknowledged the tributes and support from South Africans, the continent and the world.
“Our mothers, Mama Graça Machel and Mama Winnie Mandela, are strengthened by the knowledge that as they begin to prepare to accompany Madiba on his Long Walk to Qunu, South Africa, Africa and the world are at their side,” said Mandela family spokesman Themba Matanzima.
“It is our conviction that on this last mile, this nation will pull together and bid farewell in the most dignified and disciplined manner possible that Madiba would have expected of us”
This is an important issue and it is going to create a lot of complications, especially in the case of ignoring and 'taking Mandela from the people" of Qunu, has spurred many articles which are paying attention, following and observing this cultural error and what it is causeing and creating amongst the people and the Whole nation or the Xhosas along with their other related 10 other nations of Mzantsi, who are really affected by all this, because our cultures here in Mzantsi are all the same-this is specifically directed to Africans indigenous to and of South africa. We are not "tribes" but a nation with a very colorful, funky and diversified in its manifestation.
"No Place For Residents At Qunu Fundral" is an article written by Solly Maphumolo and Vuyo Mkhize state:
Eastern Cape -
Ordinary Qunu residents are not going to be allowed to attend Nelson Mandela’s funeral.
When his body arrives in the Eastern Cape village on Saturday morning, there will be a human chain of 10 000 people from the R61 to his home, said King Sabata Dalindyebo municipality’s executive mayor Nonkoliso Ngqongwa.
According to the OR Tambo district mayor Makhosazana Meth, only those from the community who have been accredited to attend the funeral service in the Qunu homestead on Sunday will be allowed in. The service is not going to be open to everyone.
She said the community would watch the service at the following viewing areas: Rotary Stadium, the open space below Mandela Museum, Mthatha Stadium, Khaya Majola Stadium, Empa village, Mvezo village and Nkalane village.
A memorial service takes place on Thursday at Walter Sisulu University stadium. Buses will transport the community, but those from the surrounding areas should walk as this would resemble the long walk to freedom, said Meth.
She said there would be programmes for children because Tata loved them. There would also be gifts for children to show that even though Tata is gone, his spirit lives on.
About 70 international heads of state are expected to land at Mthatha Airport for the funeral.
The airport will be closed to commercial flights from Wednesday and allow only international heads of state to land.
The army and SAPS have been camping at the airport since Saturday to ensure high-level security for international visitors.
SANDF spokesman Xolani Mabanga said access to the airport and Qunu would start being controlled from Wednesday.
Meanwhile, work is steadily continuing at the state-of-the-art stage that has been erected to accommodate family members and dignitaries for the funeral.
Project co-ordinator Petros Nelani said the auditorium, made of steel with the use of a crane, would accommodate 4 000 people. - Additional reporting by Solly Maphumulo and Vuyo Mkize
I thought I should add this piece in order to get the history as much as spossible. this article helps in this addition and for historical posterity/record:
Extended Family And Home Of His Formative Years: Mqhekezweni
AS THE world's eyes turn to the village of Qunu where Nelson Mandela will be buried on Sunday, another small community is feeling left out.
"You are welcome in Mqhekezweni, Mandela's 'secret' village,'' laughed Nugget Sithupo, 75, as he stood next to a rutted dirt track, waiting for a bag of maize to be ground to flour at a portable, roadside mill.
"Now that uThatha (Mandela) is gone, we'll probably be forgotten,'' he added with a sigh as he leaned on his walking stick.
Shortly after the death of his father, a nine-year-old Mandela and his mother left Qunu - his boyhood home - and travelled to Mqhekezweni, about 40 kilometres inland through the rolling treeless hills that dot the Eastern Cape landscape.
"Mqhekezweni was a mission station of the Methodist Church and far more up to date and Westernized than Qunu,'' Mandela recalled in his autobiography, Long Walk to Freedom.
It was here where the future global peace icon was taken under the wing of the Thembu king Jongintaba Dalindyebo and where his political activism was first stirred.
"It was at Mqhekezweni that I developed my interest in African history,'' Mandela said.
"I discovered the great African patriots who fought against Western domination. My imagination was fired by the glory of these warriors,'' he added.
Also at Mqhekezweni, Mandela underwent the traditional Xhosa circumcision rite which remains an important rite of passage for thousands of young men of today.
"It is an honour for us to undergo the same custom as the one he went through so many years ago,'' said Wanda Bongoza, 19, a new initiate, his face and body painted with traditional white Xhosa clay called "ingceke.''
After Mandela was released from 27 years in prison in 1990, he decided to build a family estate in Qunu - a move that saw the village blossom with new schools and tarred roads.
Mqhekezweni, by contrast, remained largely undeveloped and only received electricity for the first time two years ago, according to residents.
In many regards, Mqhekezweni is the archetypical rural South African village, where many eke out a living through subsistence farming and government handouts.
Now many people fear that as Mandela's legacy benefits places like Qunu and nearby Mvezo, where he was born, his time in Mqhekezweni will be largely forgotten.
"Qunu has some of the Mandela family living there, Mvezo has some of the Mandela family living there, but we don't have anything like this here,'' the elderly Sithupo told AFP.
"For a young man here it's very hard to get a job,'' added Zuko Bongaza, 22.
In recent years, crime rates in and around Mqhekezweni have shot up, as has the incidence of HIV/Aids and tuberculosis.
Sister Lindelwa Memani, 54, who works in a local health clinic, said thieves had twice tried to steal its solar panels.
Teenage pregnancies have also shot up, Ms Memani said, despite education campaigns focused on family planning. But it's not all doom and gloom.
Recently the high school, named after Chief Jongintaba, who once took Mandela under his wing, was equipped with four computers - and an Internet connection.
Asked whether he was sad that he was going to miss Mandela's funeral on Sunday because of his ongoing Xhosa initiation ceremony, Wanda Bongoza said he wasn't too worried.
"I'll watch it on YouTube once the initiation is over,'' he said.
The Crowds Behavior in the Stadium Was Not An Aberration
Democracy: Without Mandela, but the Nation and the ANC Existing And Coping
Qunu - They came to Qunu to celebrate the life of the “father” who fought for their freedom. But instead they found a village in mourning.
“In Joburg, people are so alive; it’s a true celebration of his life there,” Nandipha Maka told Weekend Argus. “Here people are just mourning.”
Maka joined Bukelwa Thonjeni-Mabandla and Zoleka Thonjeni, journeying from Mthatha, to arrive at the gates of the home of Nelson Mandela on Friday.
They were hoping to celebrate his life with local villagers, but instead were met by an eerie stillness.
For most of the day, villagers were seen quietly continuing with their lives, with most declining to speak to the media.
Several military Nyalas, three police vehicles and a handful of soldiers stood firmly outside Madiba’s homestead to maintain security.
“We heard about his passing at about 5am this morning and felt we just had to come pay our respects because we used to come to his birthdays and it would be so wonderful… he was so generous,” explained Thonjeni-Mabandla on Friday.
The trio vowed to return every day until Madiba’s funeral next Sunday to pay their last respects to the man who “taught us peace”.
Buyelekhaya Zwelinzima Dalindyebo, the king of the AbaThembu clan, also paid his respects to his grandfather.
“On Monday, the king is inviting all the Thembu chiefs to hold a prayer meeting (at Madiba’s home) at 11am,” Mtirara said, adding Dalindyebo would remember Madiba as a father, member of the family and father of the nation."
Within the Hub is a piece I attempted to present about the culture, customs and traditions of the Pondos, because that was close, to date of the information I needed about Kings/chiefs, and what happens when they died. This was done in order to inform and to pay my respects to Madiba. It was also a way of high-lightihg culture and its importance here in the Eastern Cape, the the cited articles are merely to make the point and show how media is reporting or talking about the cultural aspects and importance in this milieu.
Also, the rhythm and perceptions are different in the rural areas like the one Mandela comes from. It is not that people are backward, their life there was so for millennial and even today, they are easy-going folks who are still living their lives and taking care of their iziLali(Homesteads).
The people of the Eastern Cape are not those of the Metropolis of Johanesburg. You live and behave on their terms, time and grace. There is a strong prevalence of cultural awareness here more than in Johannesburg many times over. The people in the areas like Qunu are not enamored and taken by the infectious wave and life-stye of the cities. Here, culture rules and dominates, and the sooner people understand that, the better-off they will be.
That is why I started, within the Hub, to give a bit of a background, a sort of intimate one, to those who will in the future sojourn there. A very beautiful place, and a very intelligent and cultural people. The Xhosa people live their lives in many ways that are modern or classical and cultural to the deepest end of it.
So that,one should note that they are a proud people who live according to the dictates or their cultural reality, and the articles above, when they point out to various issues besieging the clan, they have a propensity of uniting very fast to achieve an objective. We can glean some aspects of this culture from the article below written by Ivor Powell.
"Qunu - They came to Qunu to celebrate the life of the “Father” who fought for their freedom. But instead they found a village in mourning.
“In Joburg, people are so alive; it’s a true celebration of his life there,” Nandipha Maka told Weekend Argus. “Here people are just mourning.”
Maka joined Bukelwa Thonjeni-Mabandla and Zoleka Thonjeni, journeying from Mthatha, to arrive at the gates of the home of Nelson Mandela on Friday.
They were hoping to celebrate his life with local villagers, but instead were met by an eerie stillness.
For most of the day, villagers were seen quietly continuing with their lives, with most declining to speak to the media.
Several military Nyalas, three police vehicles and a handful of soldiers stood firmly outside Madiba’s homestead to maintain security.
“We heard about his passing at about 5am this morning and felt we just had to come pay our respects because we used to come to his birthdays and it would be so wonderful… he was so generous,” explained Thonjeni-Mabandla on Friday.
The trio vowed to return every day until Madiba’s funeral next Sunday to pay their last respects to the man who “taught us peace”.
Buyelekhaya Zwelinzima Dalindyebo, the king of the AbaThembu clan, also paid his respects to his grandfather.
“On Monday, the king is inviting all the Thembu chiefs to hold a prayer meeting (at Madiba’s home) at 11am,” Mtirara said, adding Dalindyebo would remember Madiba as a father, member of the family and father of the nation.
As the days near toward the internment of his remains, it is a time where South Africa are thinking out loud, for the road ahead, this time, is not going to be with Mandela preent. For the first time, after being in exile