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Corruption in Nigeria: Review, Causes, Effects, and Solutions

Mike Uzochukwu writes on many topics, including metallurgy, business, insurance, and the challenges faced by today's youth.

Corruption is Nigeria's biggest challenge. It's clear to every citizen that the county has an extremely high level of corruption. Corruption is found in every sector of society. Critical examination of both small and large sectors reveals corrupt practices at every level.

What is corruption? It's dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery. It is the illegitimate use of power to benefit a private interest (Morris 1991). Corruption is the offering of a bribe to an official so that the truth will be hidden. It involves the embezzlement of public funds for personal use, and any act that is considered to be criminal in nature according to the law of a particular society.

Corruption is potent cancer that has mercilessly eaten Nigeria to a state of stupor.

— Professor Peter U. Nwangwu

Review of the Corrupt State

Nigeria, which is the most populated country in Africa, has consistently been ranked high in corruption by Transparency International and other notable organizations that monitor corrupt practices around the world. High corruption rankings affect almost all Nigerians who migrate to foreign countries, as foreigners have the perception that since Nigeria is corrupt, so too are all Nigerians.

In the year 2000, Transparency International conducted a survey on the corruption levels of 90 countries, including Kenya, Cameroon, Angola, Nigeria, Côte-d'Ivoire, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Ghana, Senegal, Zambia, India, Venezuela, Moldova, and others. Nigeria was ranked as the most corrupt because the country occupied the 90th position in terms of transparency.

In 2001, Nigeria was ranked the second-most corrupt nation in the world out of 91 countries, second only to Bangladesh. This shows that corruption in Nigeria improved by one step when compared to its ranking in 2000.

Still from the same source, in the year 2002, Nigeria was again ranked the second-most corrupt country in the world, after the organization surveyed 102 countries. Nigeria was seen at the bottom, occupying the 101st position in terms of Confidence Interval (CI).

In 2003, Nigeria received the same ranking, making no improvements from 2002.

2004's ranking showed a little improvement when compared to the previous four years. Nigeria was ranked the third most corrupt country in the world in that year, performing better than Bangladesh and Haiti. That year, 146 nations were surveyed.

The record on the corruption in Nigeria really improved in 2005. The number of countries surveyed by the Transparency International was 158. Nigeria was ranked eighth most corrupt.

More countries were surveyed by Transparency International in 2006. 163 countries were surveyed that year. The results showed some improvement, and Nigeria was ranked the 21st most corrupt country in the world. Haiti was the world's most corrupt nation that year.

Among the 180 countries surveyed in 2007, Nigeria ranked 147 on the table alongside Angola and Guinea-Bissau. This result shows that Nigeria was 33rd most corrupt country in the world.

An analysis of the anti-graft/anti-corruption laws in Nigeria shows that corruption will continue in spite of the law because the perpetrators do not fear any consequences (Oyinola 2011).

In 2012, Transparency International again deemed Nigeria one of the most corrupt nations in the world (Uzochukwu 2013). That year, the country ranked 139th out of the 176 surveyed countries, making Nigeria the 37th most corrupt nation.

In 2013, Nigeria ranked 144 out of 177 surveyed countries in terms of transparency. The score made Nigeria 33rd most corrupt country in the world that year. The result published by the organization also showed that Nigeria scored 25% out of 100 in terms of transparency.

In the 2014 ranking, Nigeria was ranked 136 out of 174 surveyed countries (Transparency International 2014). The result showed that there was improvement, though things were still bad. Nigeria was the 38th most corrupt country in the world in 2014 from the survey.

With the emergence of a new government in the year 2015, many Nigerians were hopeful that the country's corruption level will be minimized. That year, power was transferred from the People's Democratic Party (PDP) to All Progressive Congress (APC). One of the campaign promises made by the President Muhammadu Buhari was the massive eradication of corruption in the country.

But the question that Nigerians have been asking since the leadership of President Buhari till date is "is President Buhari's government fighting corruption as he promised during his campaign?" Nigerians are tired as they found out that the government is not really fighting corruption. There are incidences were the man that said he strongly believes and practices transparency failed. This is made clear through the words of PDP 2019 presidential candidate, Atiku Abubakar. He stated in December 2018:

"Mr. President, the problem with your anti-corruption war is not the system. You are the problem!

The system allows you to arrest, try and convict your former Secretary to the Government of the Federation, who was fingered in a major corruption case, but you chose to let him go scot free and you demonstrated your tolerance for his corruption by giving him a prominent role in your re-election campaign and recently welcoming him to the Presidential Villa with open arms".

Irrespective of the campaign promises, Nigeria ranked low in transparency and high in corruption in that 2015. In 2015, out of the 168 countries surveyed, Nigeria was the 32nd most corrupt.

Over two-thirds of the 176 countries and territories surveyed in 2016 fall below the midpoint of Transparency International scale of 0 (highly corrupt) to 100 (very clean). In that year's survey, Nigeria sat at number 136 on the table with Guatemala, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Myanmar, and Papua New Guinea. From calculation, it shows that Nigeria and the mentioned countries were ranked 40th most corrupt in 2016.

In 2017, there was no remarkable improvement in transparency in the country. Irrespective of the promise made by the current president to fight corruption, it appears that the former President Goodluck Jonathan did quite better than him when compared with his 2014 results before he left the presidential seat.

It was very disappointing that in the 2017 Corruption Perception Index released by Transparency International in 2018, Nigeria has relapsed deeper into corruption—moving 12 steps backward from 136 to 148 (Vanguard news 2018) with respect to the 2014 results.

In the year 2018, Corruption Perception Index ranked 180 countries and territories. Nigeria occupied number 144 on the table with Comoros, Guatemala, Kenya and Mauritania. Also the score of the country in that year was 27 which was same with that of 2017. Based on the position of 144 on the table, it indicated that Nigerian was the 36th most corrupt country in the world in 2018.

Nigeria failed when it came to transparency in the country's government. By contrast, in 2013, Denmark and New Zealand scored highest at 91% each, meaning the countries are clean and have higher Confidence Intervals than Nigeria. In other words, Nigeria is highly corrupt.

Corruption in Nigeria hurts a lot of people, as the money that would have been used to reduce poverty in the country is being channeled into the pockets of a select few.

What can we say about the $2.1 billion arms deal? The money that was budgeted for the purchase of arms in the fight against Nigeria's Boko Haram insurgency group suddenly disappeared. Whether the fund developed legs and ran away is what the Federal Government of Nigeria could not explain to its citizens.

The stain of corruption did not spare anti-graft agencies, as former Chairman of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, EFCC, Ibrahim Lamorde, was accused of fraudulently diverting N1tn proceeds from corruption recovered by the agency (Adeyemi 2016). This is incredible, as those who were appointed to fight corruption in the country are also found to be victims of the same problem they fight. That is to say, trust is difficult in Nigeria.

Corruption is not only experienced among the Presidents of the country—many governors have been found guilty of it, too. It's like a disease that spreads from mother to child. The News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) reports that Nyako, the former governor of Adamawa, and seven others, including companies, are standing trial before Justice Okon Abang on a 37-count charge bordering on money laundering. The news was published on December 1, 2016 (Pulse 2016).

The governor opened 30 different accounts to siphon funds at Zenith Bank of Nigeria using different names. Among the offenses the ex-governor is being accused of are criminal conspiracy, abuse of office, opening of multiple bank accounts, and stealing to the tune of ₦29 billion (twenty-nine billion naira).

The former president of the country, Olusegun Obasanjo, while speaking at the first Akintola Williams Annual Lecture in Lagos on November 24, 2016, reacted negatively to the level of corruption going on among the members of the House of Assembly and House of Representatives. Quoting from the writings of Jola Sotubo "Former President, Olusegun Obasanjo described the National Assembly as a den of corruption (Jola 2016)". Part of the speech delivered by the ex-president, which hammered on the level of corruption among the members of the house, states:

“Members of the National Assembly pay themselves allowances for staff and offices they do not have or maintain. Once you are a member, you are co-opted and your mouth is stuffed with rot and corruption that you cannot opt out as you go home with not less than N15 million a month for a senator and N10 million a month for a member of the House of Representatives".

According to Lewis Obi, the National Assembly is nothing but a business enterprise, and the primary objective of the members is to make money for themselves. He further explained that the country's National Assembly is the highest-paid legislature in the world. The Chamber earns more than that of United States of America and yet American economy is far much better than that of Nigeria.

According to the documentation, United States senators make an approximate annual income of $174,000.00, while that of Nigerian senators is $2,183,685.00 (reported via Authoritative Economist Magazine). You cannot imagine the degree of disparity between the two.

Exchange of money for votes. A common political corrupt practice in Nigeria.

Exchange of money for votes. A common political corrupt practice in Nigeria.

Faces of Corruption

Corruption takes many forms and can be interpreted in many different ways. It is hard to enter any sector in Nigeria without observing one corrupt practice or another. In fact, corruption is not only observed in the public sector and politics.

In this article, I'll discuss corruption in:

  • politics,
  • universities and colleges,
  • the police force,
  • Nigerian football,
  • churches,
  • online,
  • and in the customs service.

Political Corruption

Books have been written and press companies have published articles about the high level of corruption in Nigeria politics, yet the perpetrators pretend as though they are not the people being talked about. They believe they are above the law. But little do they understand the injuries they are causing to the country and the citizens.

Corruption takes many forms, starting with embezzlement, bribery, rituals, and election rigging. In fact, corruption levels are highest in Nigeria's political system. In both the Senate and the House of Representatives, corruption is seen as normal.

Where do we start among politicians? Due to the “wicked level” of corruption, both the young and the old struggle to align themselves one political party or the other. They believe that once they take any position in politics, even a low-level position, they will use corrupt tricks to fill their pockets with public funds.


Embezzlement of public funds is common. Many leaders have helped boost the economies of other nations by depositing embezzled money into foreign banks.

Political corruption is persistent in the Nigerian state. Since the creation of modern public administration in the country, there have been cases of official misuse of resources for personal enrichment (Storey Report 2014). After the death of the former president, Sani Abacha, an investigation was carried out to determine the amount of money he embezzled in gas plant construction in the country. The investigations led to the freezing of accounts containing about $100 million United States dollars that he stole (Hector 2004).

The Abacha administration notoriously looted upwards of $3 billion in the 1990s (Uzochukwu 2013). The federal government’s agreement with the Swiss government on the return of looted funds traced to former Head of State General Sani Abacha led to the remittance of US$322 million in December 2017 (Webby 2018).

The plan is to distribute the returned money among Nigerians, which was confirmed through the publication of Transparency International in August 2018. It stated:

In Nigeria, plans are in motion to distribute US$322 million recovered in Switzerland from the late General Sani Abacha, the country’s former military ruler.

Before now, some funds were returned to Nigeria by the Swiss bank in 2006 from the money stolen by the same former president. In 2006, US$723 million illicitly acquired by Abacha’s family was returned to Nigeria from Switzerland (Transparency International 2018).

Missing Children

As of a few years ago, whenever it was time for an election in Nigeria, small children across the country began to go missing. Child kidnapping during that period was rampant and parents were usually advised to guard their children against ritualists. But why was it like that and what happened to the kidnapped children?

This is another face of corruption—one that breaks the hearts of mothers. The missing children were used by contesting politicians to perform ritual killings in order to get protection and devilish powers that would enable them to win elections. This is corruption and wickedness in the highest order because it involves the termination of human life. Those who take part in that practice have their own children at home, yet went on capturing and killing the children of others. This practice hasn't stopped, but it has slowed down.

Election Rigging

Election rigging is not an unheard-of phenomenon. During elections, the candidates hire thugs who go around the election polling stations to highjack the ballot boxes. When they steal these boxes, they then write in votes for their candidate. In recent times, a new tactic that contestants have adopted is buying voters' cards so that they can manipulate and use the cards to their advantage.


On many occasions, politicians have bribed top officials to commit illegal acts to their favor. Some political leaders, including governors and presidents, have been sued by opponents, but the sued were able to escape punishment by bribing attorneys and judges. At the end of the judgment, the leader who bribed someone won the case.

University of Nigeria Nsukka. It is one of the oldest universities in the country located in Enugu state.

University of Nigeria Nsukka. It is one of the oldest universities in the country located in Enugu state.

Corruption in Universities and Colleges

Nigerian universities rank low in the world and such is traceable to corruption in the land. It is not news to any Nigerian that corruption is rampant in universities, polytechnics, and colleges. There are certain things that lecturers do that deserve “hot punishment.” Most lecturers use the opportunities they have to take advantage of others.

Harassment of women by lecturers and pressure to sleep with them is common. The most painful part of it is that some of them are married, yet they are not satisfied. After female undergraduates submit to the lecturers' requests, they are rewarded with good grades.

Universities have been complaining about the number of funds allocated to them. Corruption is one of the biggest challenges faced by the education system. A lecturer in the Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering at a university located in Anambra State had this to say on the nature of the poor standard of the foundry:

“What makes our foundry to be of a low standard is... corruption. An organization gave the department some money that would have been more than enough to upgrade and standardize the foundry, but I do not know what the management of the department did with the money.”

How do some students find their way into the universities? Some are there not by merit, but through a kind of bribery called sorting. Some rich men in the country bribe vice chancellors and heads of departments to secure admission for their children. When this kind of dirty practice is conducted, those who would have made it on merit are cheated, as admission will not be offered to them. Every university in Nigeria has a quota (maximum number of students) they can admit each year.

Corruption in the Police Force

Where do we start when it comes to the nature of corruption observed in the police force? Do we start with bribery, intimidation, sexual harassment of young inmates in prison, or the fact that they truths upside down?

There is a saying that “police are your friends” in Nigeria; policemen are your enemies because they can deny the truth and collect bribes to do so. Because of the encounters many Nigerians have had with policemen, even the good ones among them are generalized as being bad. What a shame.

The police who work in some checkpoints on the expressways cannot do so without collecting bribes from car owners and drivers. Their interest lies in collecting money from drivers and not in securing the road. Bribes become compulsory even when your particulars are in order.

Bus drivers must offer money before they continue with their transportation business, be it one hundred naira (₦100 = $0.26) or two hundred naira (₦200 = $0.52). The police are now turning to gods that receive money from the worshipper as an offering.

Some female prison inmates come out of prison pregnant. What this implies is that the policemen sexually assault women who are imprisoned. The women may say no, but because the policemen have guns, the women cannot do anything. They were impregnated before they were granted bail. What kind of prayer will erase this kind of abomination?

Corruption in Nigerian Football

Corruption is like a curse that's been laid upon us. Even football has corruption. Players are not chosen by merit. It is all about who you know in top political offices or society.

In the Nigerian Football Federation (NFF), corruption is the reason why Mr. A is elected as the leader of the group today and tomorrow the election is nullified and Mr. B will be chosen. Everybody wants to be at the head so that he will fill his bag with the national cake. People do not fight to work because it is stressful, so whenever people fight for a particular position, there is every possibility that they are there to clean out the organization.

Reports and evidence have shown that there are corrupt practices in Nigerian football. A BBC news report said this: “A senior football official and a club administrator have been banned for 10 years following their involvement in corruption, the football authority has announced” (BBC Sports News 2013). Match-fixing and corruption is a problem in Nigerian football and has lead to sanctions against a number of clubs, referees and officials (Oluwashina 2013).

A referee (the name of whom was withdrawn) who is currently a Catholic priest serving in a parish in Anambra, once gave his experience on the level of corruption in football. According to the priest, he said that he narrowly escaped death when he officiated a match in the local league. He stated:

After the first half of the match, none of the two sides scored any goal. Before the beginning of the second half, some officials and young youths who were supporting the club at home side came and said to me: if you want to leave this pitch alive, make sure that you do anything possible to see that our club win this match.

The young referee was frightened by the threat, and finally, the home side won the match with a lone goal. The inability of Super Eagles of Nigeria to qualify for 2015 Africa Cup of Nations (AFCON) can be attributed to corruption.

Corruption in Churches

When churches are corrupt, what hope do Nigerians have? The truth is that not all the churches in the country are equally corrupt. Corruption is witnessed mainly in the “new generation churches.” That is why many of their members are secretly angry.

New generation churches in this context are those churches that do not have solid origin or foundation. They are not like Catholic, Anglican, or Orthodox churches. New generation churches are churches that start when a person who calls himself a pastor goes and rents a room, decorates it, and convinces people to join him, claiming that he has been given the power to summon signs and miracles from God.

Imagine you have been dying of hunger for years and a man claims that you should come to him because he has been called by God, and can transform your financial status. It is a common thing they say to make hungry Nigerians yield to their deceptions. The people come and the so-called pastors use their tricks to collect the money that is remaining in the pockets of the country's poor.

Some of the pastors go to the extent of using magical and devilish powers to run their church business in the name of God’s power. They give the congregations what they want without them knowing the source of their so-called power. If women are in search of babies, the babies may be given to them through devilish means. Today, one of those children might steal money from a bank through armed robbery and tomorrow kill an innocent person, operating under the influence of the devil.

Pastors have, on many occasions, been caught committing adultery and fornication. It is not new and it is certain that you as a reader have heard about such shameful acts. The immoral acts committed by Nigerian pastors have been observed through newspapers, televisions, and other channels.

In early November 2014, there was a radio program from Blaze FM, Orifite, on a pastor that impregnated an 11-year-old girl. According to the report, the girl was impregnated by the pastor when her mother took her to the pastor’s place for prayers and left on her own business.

Internet Fraud

Fraudulent Internet activity is another face of corruption. Graduates and non-graduates who lack the knowledge and skills to help them earn money find joy in Internet fraud. It is a criminal act and deserves serious punishment. Among the classes of offences committed in Nigeria, both the Senate and members of the House of Representatives are working hard to see that those caught in such acts face the punishments they deserve without any favour.

Some Nigerians, mainly youths, have been scamming their fellow citizens using illegal means. Some host websites online that claim to be giving jobs to job seekers, and scam any who fall prey to their tricks. They tell job seekers to make certain payments for processing documents without them knowing that they will not be issued any job. Some Nigerians have had money stolen by these cybercriminals.

The level of corruption in Nigeria has made many citizens of the country show no respect for holy and godly affairs. This is seen in the report given by the spiritual director of Adoration Ministry Enugu Nigeria, AMEN, in December 2014.

According to the spiritual director, Rev. Father Ejike Mbaka, some Nigerians impersonated him through websites and social media sites, specifically Facebook. He lamented that these criminals used his picture to deceive people and collect money from them while claiming they were Fr. Mbaka. The notable reverend father made it clear that he is not on Facebook, nor does he own a website with his name. He went further to say that anyone caught in that act will dance to the music that he or she deserves, and the police have been involved to find the criminals.

Corruption in the Customs Service

Are Nigerian customs really doing the work they are hired to do correctly? The customs service of Nigeria is the organization that is authorized to clear goods imported into the country. This group is not free from the menace of corruption.

On most occasions, you must pay bribes to customs before your goods are cleared. Many containers are held captive by customs because the owners are not willing to pay the large amount of money being demanded.

Causes of Corruption

A number of issues cause corruption, and among them are:

  1. Greed
  2. Poor youth empowerment
  3. Poverty
  4. Unemployment

1. Greed

Greed has caused a lot of crises in the world, including in Nigeria. It is because of greed that political leaders embezzle the funds they are supposed to use for national development for their own selfish needs.

2. Poor Youth Empowerment

Poor moral youth empowerment is a contributor to corruption. Internet fraud, sexual harassment by male CEOs, and other bad acts occur because Nigerians lack understanding of the importance of youth empowerment. When parents and governments empower youths both financially and morally, the level of corruption will diminish.

3. Poverty

According to international standards of poverty, a person is said to be poor when he lives under $1.25 (₦210, although it varies) per day. There are many poor people in Nigeria, and poverty pushes them into corruption. According to World Bank Group, in 2004, 63.1% of Nigerians were poor. The poverty level increased in 2010. In 2010, 68% of the Nigerian population was estimated to be poor. A person can take bribes to commit crime because he is poor. It is one of the reasons why the poor youths in the country collect bribes to work as thugs for Nigerian politicians.

4. Unemployment

Unemployment is one of the major challenges in Nigeria and does not need much explanation because it has broken the hearts of many citizens. People are pushed into corrupt practices because of the high unemployment rates. An unemployed citizen can indulge in corruption to make money and live better.

The youths, fathers, and mothers are seriously concerned about the negative impact of unemployment in their lives. Some have said that it is better to die than to suffer the torment of unemployment in the country. Words cannot explain the level of punishment the citizens of this country face as a result of this menace.

Effects of Corruption

The negative consequences of corruption are many, and among them are:

  1. Poor investment
  2. Rise in poverty
  3. Poor national development
  4. National crises

1. Poor Investment

Unemployment in Nigeria would have been eradicated to some extent if only investors were attracted to doing business in the country. Companies that would have invested in Nigeria are afraid because they do not know if the corrupt practice will ruin their industries over time. Because of this concern, they refuse to invest in Nigeria.

2. Rise in Poverty

When the heads of public service are busy laundering the money that is supposed to be used to create employment for the masses and reduce poverty, what happens is a rise in the poverty level of the country, just like the rise in poverty shown by the statistics between 2004 and 2008. Since the government is selfish and does not want to help the poor, poverty continues to rise in Nigeria.

3. Poor National Development

Any country with high corruption levels is likely to experience developmental bankruptcy. When some CEOs indulge in corrupt practices to make their money, economic development will suffer. When Nigerians keep on shifting the country’s currency to foreign countries, there will be less economic development in Nigeria.

4. National Crises

So many crises in Nigeria today are a result of corruption. The insecurity in Nigeria brought about by Boko Haram is a consequence of corruption. Corrupt politicians are fighting the government of President Goodluck Jonathan using Boko Haram as their agent because they do not want him to succeed. The attacks by Boko Haram have caused disorderliness in Nigeria and seriously affected the country's economy.

Eradicating Corruption

Corrupt Nigerians do not truly understand the harm they are causing to other citizens. Corruption could be reduced by these potential solutions:

  1. Self-satisfaction
  2. Institution of strong anti-corruption groups
  3. Employment generation
  4. Proper government funding of schools
  5. Treating all citizens equally

1. Self-Satisfaction

Self-satisfaction in this context implies being content with what one has. When the leaders of Nigeria are satisfied with the salary they are paid and use public funds in a proper manner, the issue of embezzlement and money laundering will be history. Managers who are satisfied with what they are paid will not have time to indulge in corruption to make more money.

2. Institution of Strong Anti-Corruption Groups

Creating strong anti-corruption institutions is another arsenal to win the fight against corruption. This group is to work independently with the government to ensure transparency. Anyone who is caught engaging in corrupt practices by the group should experience the consequences decided by the anti-corruption agency. That he is a minister or governor of a state should not be an excuse from facing the punishment he is to receive according to the Constitution of Nigeria.

3. Employment Generation

The unemployed in the country find themselves involved in corruption mainly because they want to make money to meet the demand of the day. Governments and capable hands should endeavour to generate more jobs for citizens to get employed and paid in return. A busy mind may find it difficult to indulge in corruption because he is being paid adequately.

4. Proper Government Funding of Schools

Understanding the importance of skill acquisition will go a long way to propel them to develop all the schools in Nigeria. When more attention is paid to the tertiary institutions in the country, it will produce graduates who are employable. Installation of the necessary machines needed in universities will help Nigerian graduates acquire skills and use them to generate income, even if no company employs them after graduation.

Self-employment will make graduates more determined in the work they do and will prevent them from corruption like Internet scams, kidnapping and the rest.

5. Treating All Citizens Equally

Treating any offender in the country equally will help reduce corruption. Nobody is above the law and any who acts contrary to it should be given the punishment that he or she deserves. That she is the Minister of Aviation or Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria should not count in this case. If any minister or head of state is given the punishment he deserves for corruption, others will learn and separate themselves from any corrupt practice.

Message to the Nigerian Leaders

Irrespective of the position you are holding, whether big or small, you need to do well. You have to maintain certain level of decency in your leadership to make the country better. You are killing the country and the citizens by not doing what you have to do and do them rightly.

Even if you are holding the position of a Local Government Chairman, you lead them well. You may not be 100% clean but make sure you make positive influence. Do not steal from the people you lead because you have the privilege to occupy such position. Impunity is high in the Federal Government of Nigeria and tidying it up to some extent involves cleaning from bottom to top. If you are allocated some funds to use in the development of your local government, ensure you show some example of a good leader by using the money for what it is meant. If you must steal, use your brain and not emptying everything.
You as a top officer in the Nigerian government travel from one developed country to another. You travel to United States, Canada and United Kingdom and you are happy being there. But know that that is not your country. Some leaders shun corruption and decided to do things right before they were able to achieve such milestone.
You can achieve similar thing if you decide to reduce corruption and do things in the right way. If you want to smile as you did when you got to developed countries, start building your own home. Stop being intellectually poor by stealing what is meant for all for your personal use.
It is selfishness and corruption and that will make the country not to grow. It is time Nigerian leaders have to wake up. When you steal from the country you lead, you steal from yourself and it will always make us stagnant. Let all the country's leaders say no to corruption.


Remaining corrupt as a country is not a good record. Corruption is a cankerworm that has eaten deep into the fabric of Nigerian society. Discussed are the many faces of corruption; as well as its causes, effects, and possible solutions. Because of the outstanding nature of this article, its upgraded version appears in a book WE THE PEOPLE - Building a New Democracy in Nigeria as a Model for Africa. The upgraded version appears as chapter five. The book is written by 18 great authors—get it to read more about Nigerian democracy.


  • Adeyemi O. (2016). 10 Biggest Corruption Cases that Shook Nigeria in 2015. Green News Publication, Nigeria
  • Danladi (2007). Nigeria Ranks 148 on the 2007 Corruption Perception Index. Naira Land Publication, Nigeria
  • Jola Sotubo (2016). Senators make N15M monthly, Reps 10M,’ Ex-president says. Pulse Nigeria News Publication, Nigeria
  • Hector, I. (2004). SKJ SAGA: SWISS GOVT FREEZES $ 100M ACCOUNTS. A Publication of Vanguard, Nigeria
  • Morris, S.D. (1991). Corruption and Politics in Contemporary Mexico. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa
  • Oluwashina, O. (2013), Nigeria Official Banned for Bribe, BBC Sport News Lagos
  • Oyinola, O. A. (2011), Corruption Eradication in Nigeria: An Appraisal. Library Philosophy and Practice
  • Pulse News Agency (2016), FG to reveal ex-Gov's 30 bank accounts in court, Pulse Nigeria News Publication
  • Reno (2018), Corruption: Shameful under Buhari, Nigeria’s moved 12 steps backwards in TI’s report, Vanguard news publication on February 22, 2018
  • The Storey Report (2016), The Commission of Inquiry into the administration of Lagos Town Council
  • Transparency International (2018), Returning Nigerians' Stolen Millions, Transparency International publication
  • Uzochukwu, M. O. (2013), Challenges in Nigeria and Solutions on how to resolve them, published by Hubpages Inc., California, United States
  • Wale, O. (2018), APC vs PDP: Atiku lambasts Buhari again, mocks fight against Corruption [Full text], published by Daily Post, Nigeria
  • Webby (2018), Abacha loot: Osinbajo speaks on return of $322m by Swiss govt, Online News report
  • World Bank Group (2013), Poverty and Equity, World Bank documentation

This content reflects the personal opinions of the author. It is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and should not be substituted for impartial fact or advice in legal, political, or personal matters.

Questions & Answers

Question: What are solutions to corruption?

Answer: Solutions to corruption are discussed in this article. If you are not satisfied with the one discussed here, you can search for "Corruption: Causes and Solutions by Uzochukwu Mike" on Google and read more on that. It is my article as well and I know you will get more points from there.

Question: What do you mean by cankerworm?

Answer: A cankerworm is the caterpillar of a North American moth that has wingless females. Cankerworms consume the buds and leaves of trees and can be a major pest.

In respect to my write-up, what it means is that corruption is like this dangerous warm that can eat deep into living things that it comes across in Nigeria. Corruption has eaten deep into many sectors in Nigeria.

Question: What is your opinion about Nigeria being able to stop corruption?

Answer: From my own point of view, I do not think that corruption can be stopped completely in Nigeria. But on the other hand, it can be reduced to a certain level. The fact is that there is no country that is totally free from corruption but there are those with less corruption level. So, Nigeria can maintain such level but cannot be stopped totally. No country is made up of all "angels".

Question: What are the effects of corruption in Nigeria?

Answer: Corruption in Nigeria and other parts of the world has many effects. Among the effects are:

(1) Bad Economy

When people embezzle the funds made for public development which include economic growth for their personal use, the economy will not grow.

(2) Social Unrest

There are riots all over the world today as a result of poor leadership which includes corrupt practices.

(3) Poor Productivity

Many companies are not producing properly today because the people that work there are not employed by merit. Many bought their ways into the companies and they do not have the necessary skills for effective results.

(4) Poverty

Corruption has kept many citizens in a poor state.

Question: What writing points can I glean from a topic of "Grassroot corruption: are parents the main contributors?"

Answer: I do not believe that parents are the main contributors of grassroot corruption. The reasons are as follow:

(1) People grow up and choose the life they want to live

(2) Moral practice can decrease in people

(3) Get rich quick syndrome can develop in people and push them into corrupt practices

(4) A person can be influenced by the group of corrupt people

(5) Orientation can change irrespective of good principles already set by parents

You can develop the above points.

Question: What can we students do to control fraud?

Answer: There are things students can do to control fraud:

(1) Being satisfied with what they have. Not being satisfied is one of the problems with many students. Many are not satisfied with what is given to them by their parents and guardians to sustain them in schools. Because of this, they go into fraudulent activities to make more money for themselves.

(2) Sound moral practice

Many people are guilty of fraud as students are not disciplined morally. Because of poor moral integration they have, they are easily influenced by scam activities involvement.

(3) Skill Acquisition while in School

There are many students who are making money in genuine ways while in school. These are students who possess good skills during long holidays and also while in school. The skills include computer software skills, electrical, painting, and others. Some even design websites for clients. Students like this make money on their own without getting involved in fraud.

Question: What are the solutions to corruption in secondary schools?

Answer: It is obvious that there are many corrupt practices going on in secondary schools. These practices which are not healthy to secondary schools can be reduced. The solutions are as follow:

(1) Quality Education

(2) Having qualified and certified Teachers

(3) Culture of Accountability

(4) Adequate Payment

Quality Education

The government and individuals that have private schools should do well to make sure that quality education is given to the students. This will make students to be intelligent and avoid the attitude of paying bribes to either internal or external teachers before they can make it in crucial examinations.

Having qualified and certified Teachers

The blind cannot in any way lead the blind. In the same way, some teachers are like the blind leading the students that do not know much on some subjects. Schools should employ teachers who are sound academically and morally. Doing this will make the students learn what they need to learn and also be able to defend themselves academically during examinations.

Culture of Accountability

It is not only to our political leaders that we need to talk about accountability. Accountability is to be promoted in secondary schools as well. Many secondary school's management have used the money allocated to them to develop secondary schools in their areas for personal expenses. This is bad and corrupt practice. They should be summoned by the academic board and asked how they spent the money allocated to them.

Adequate Payment

Teaching in secondary schools can be made interesting and competitive if the teachers are paid well. Both governments of different states and private owners should pay the teachers well. This will make the teachers to have enough money to spend and avoid corruption in schools.

© 2014 Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P


Umar Usman Adam on February 13, 2020:

I Umar Usman Adam I really appreciate your wisdom may Allah increase you.

In my view, if we'll Rectify ourselves Nigeria can be changed so easy. But we need to love our country, we need love our people all and sundry. No discrimination, No racism, social interest, and no tribalism. We only need cooperation from every part of the country. So that we can be changed also to keep praying very hard. May God bless Nigeria

Chituheme m Elechi on December 15, 2019:

Good write up

Alex on November 11, 2019:

Good job, boy I need the solution to civil servant corruption

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on October 27, 2019:

Good afternoon Moses, you can contact me by the use of "Contact the Author" link on top of this page or use the question and answer section.

Moses on October 27, 2019:

I need your help sir

Ibeh Chisom Charles on October 18, 2019:

You're a wonderful writer. Great work there.

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on October 17, 2019:

Thanks ABDULMALIK Isah Musa, Adava, Chijindu and others.

ABDULMALIK Isah Musa on October 17, 2019:

wondenful writer.

Adava mary on October 12, 2019:

Really helpful and touching, how I wish the leaders will read it too

immanuel on October 07, 2019:

i love this,i prayed that this will help nigeria,god will bless you

Ohaeri Chijindu on May 21, 2019:

Good day sir . God bless you sir for yoir write-up which I can almost say is an article. Thanks for helping with my assignment through this and I hope that oneday yoi will be rewarded for this. Thanks for being bold and brave enough to do and send this write-up which I can almost say and will still say it should be an article.

oluwabusola charles olamide on May 14, 2019:

lAdd Your Comment...l love this keep it up and more power to your elbow

cynthia on April 24, 2019:

love this

Abuakar Yusuf Saeed on April 13, 2019:

Thats a wonderful appreciation my great scholar ur work is highly fantastic.

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on March 10, 2019:

Thanks so much Ijagbe, Stella, Emeka and Ebuka for your comments.

Stella on March 09, 2019:

I love this article, it's great, kudos!

ijagbe on February 14, 2019:

interesting answer

ebuka on February 07, 2019:

A little bit helpful but you are smart

emeka on February 07, 2019:

A little bit helpful

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on February 07, 2019:

Thanks AYOMIDE ASELA, Ello, and Olamide.

AYOMIDE ASELA on February 06, 2019:

More ink into ur pen.

Ello M8 on February 04, 2019:

Thanks, You helped with my assignment

olamide Abdullah on January 26, 2019:

An interest solution

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on January 20, 2019:

Thanks so much @ NKEMDILIM. It is good as you found my work special. More power in your academic pursuit.

NKEMDILIM on January 20, 2019:

Uzo, i was searching for literature review on corruption and embezzlement by Nigeria political leaders and came across your excellent write up I read with all enthusiastic and found what i needed. keep it up.

GIDEON on January 02, 2019:

Peopel engage in curuption to make money

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on December 15, 2018:

@ AKA SS, we are hopeful till 2019

a k a ss on December 15, 2018:

nigeran will be change by new president2019

Dr. Ronald B. Rice on November 07, 2018:

I my partner am a retired pastor from the US doing volunteer mission work in Nigeria, building wheelchairs for polio survivors. So far my partner, Ayuba Gufwan and I, and our organization, Beautiful Gate Handicapped People Center, have built and donated 18,000 self-pedaled tricycles to polio survivors in 28 states of Nigeria. We build them at our shop in Jos, with 65 employees.

One of my other projects is working with CRK teachers, and every year for about 18 years I edit the academic papers that are given at the annual conference of the National Association of Christian Religious Educators of Nigeria (NACREN). I thought you would be interested that first 11 pages plus some additional material of the paper I have just edited is cut and pasted word for word from this article.

The paper is written by Attah Omaku Chris of the Government Girls' College Wamba, Nasarawa State, and Ruth Nuhu of the Abubaker Tatar Ali Polytechnic, Bauchi.

I have written that the authors should be charged with academic malpractice and their schools notified of their flagrant plagiarism.

I certainly hope your article isn't plagiarized. Some of it doesn't appear to be Nigerian writing. In fact it was the phrase "They are not like Catholic, Anglican or Orthodox churches" that looked suspicious and caused me to do a Google search where I found your article. I have traveled in 33 states of Nigeria, but I never seen or heard of an Orthodox church.

Plagiarism is academic malpractice, and unfortunately it is widespread in Nigeria. Fortunately with Google search, it is easily discovered.

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on October 22, 2018:

Thank you so much Musa Maigari for your standard comment and observation on the challenge of Corruption in Nigeria. I believe that a day will come when Nigerians will have a rethink and learn how to do things right including the politicians.

Musa Maigari. on October 22, 2018:

I commend your intellectual sagacity in attempt to analyze the phenomenon that differs all pragmatic solutions. The above indicates clearly that the Nigeria war against corruption under Buhari's government is nothing but a mere political rhetoric.

It's my hope that you will continue to educate the Nigerian community until we get credible leaders that have the political will and with-withal of fighting corruption scourge to terminus for the development of our country.

God bless.

CCPWUK on October 16, 2018:

I read this with great interest. I have visited Nigeria 3 times, ready for my fourth visit, and it is a beautiful country, spoilt with the issue of corruption. If only the greedy and powerful could see past there selfishness, and appreciate, that they can still benefit, but more importantly, gaining growth and development for their people, and country, for whom they serve. Its a vicious circle that badly needs terminating. The corrupt ones are short sighted, and will ruin it for everyone including themselves. Nobody in this world, is more important than anyone else. Our lives are temporary, we all go back to where we came from, dust. So treat everyone equally, and help others whom are less fortunate, you may think your untouchable, but God will find a way to deal with your misdemeanours. To the powerful and greedy, you will reap what you sow. Serve others, and make a difference, you will then generate, and prosper your country, not destroy and destruct it. Greed is making you blind, and short sighted, you may feel your wise, but only a fool thinks otherwise. A small sacrifice, leads to significant gains, if you have the discipline, the strength, motivation and determination. Those who abuse there power are weak, and lack self discipline. So do what is right for your people and your country, dig deep, and terminate your corruption, and your beautiful country could be the paradise on earth. That is coming from someone who knows a good thing when he sees it.

gidiom on October 16, 2018:

pls they should find away and make sured the stop corruption. bicus in nigeria if you are not a coultis you are employed in any company that is one of they corruption

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on September 15, 2018:

Thanks for your comment Abasifreke. On the aspect of you reading more of my written works, my answer is that they are on many platforms including here and personal blog. You can as well buy any of my books through Amazon.com. Typing the name "Uzochukwu Mike P" on Google will show you platforms where you can get my written works. Thanks for your comment once again.

Abasifreke on September 15, 2018:

This is great. I mean you are awesome!. I wish to read more from you.

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on August 29, 2018:

Thanks so much for your encouraging comment @ Jace.

Jace. on August 29, 2018:

wow great article! has helped me out a lot so thank you. I've been searching for a while for a useful source and I've finally met one :)

Muhammad on July 17, 2018:

what are the challenges of corruption in Nigeria ?

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on July 04, 2018:

Base on my opinion, it will be good again if we restructure the way we think and do things.

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on July 04, 2018:

I believe it will

Emmanuel on July 04, 2018:

am Emmanuel will Nigeria ever be good again...corruption is too much..

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on July 04, 2018:

It is good to hear that my article is useful to your work. Thanks for reading.

Anonymous on July 04, 2018:

Thank you so much for this article! It helped our group to do well in a school presentation. Your points were well illustrated and very easy to understand. Thanks again!

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on July 01, 2018:

Amen. Thanks YAKUBU OVYE

YAKUBU OVYE on July 01, 2018:

thank you alots may the God of knowledge increase your wisdom

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on June 23, 2018:

Thanks so much Ahmed Abdullahi

Ahmed Abdullahi on June 23, 2018:

An interesting lectures it really help our research, may God throw more light into mind of Mr Mike.

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on June 18, 2018:

Amen to your prayer @ Ife.

Ife on June 18, 2018:

It really help me in my project a lot kudos sir and it is also an enlightement work for d Nigeria and even to other countries,i really love it and I pray for more wisdom from God

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on June 05, 2018:

Thanks so much Mr Emmanuel

Emmanuel on June 04, 2018:

Thanks very much for this writeup, it really helped me in my assignment. More grace to your elbow.

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on May 23, 2018:

Contact me on +2347037278694 @ Jessica.

Jessica on May 23, 2018:

You are highly welcome. Personally How pls?

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on May 23, 2018:

Thanks so much Jessica. You can write to me personally for me to know the nature of the essay.

Jessica on May 22, 2018:

Nice write up excellent points. Can you be of help with my eassy, on management

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on May 16, 2018:

@ Abia Catherine, am very convinced and happy with your comment. Comments of this kind get me motivated to write more inspiring topics. Am grateful.

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on May 11, 2018:

No problem Blessing, you can reference the article.

blessing on May 11, 2018:

Beautiful piece..

I would love to reference your article.

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on April 30, 2018:

Thanks Emmysan for the motivating comment.

emmysan on April 30, 2018:

great write up....

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on April 29, 2018:

God bless you too Hiqmak

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on April 13, 2018:

Amen @ Raph sesan

raph sesan on April 13, 2018:

very good write up. May God deliver this nation

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on April 08, 2018:

Thanks so much God'swill for the comment.

God'swill on April 08, 2018:

Thanks for this page it really helped Me with My assignment .I love it .thanks once again

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on March 26, 2018:

Thanks so much Olivia d great1 for your encouraging comment. God will really help us in our institution.

Olivia d great1 on March 25, 2018:

I thank u sir, you really done great .

Thanks a lot sir.

Is only God that will us in higher institutions.

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on March 20, 2018:

Thanks so much Adeyemi. 2019 is another year of decision. I wish the masses decide well without tribal or religious attachment.

Adeyemi on March 19, 2018:

Good job! We need this constant reminder less we suffer institutional memory deficit. It's rather embarrassing and shameful that President M Buhari who rode to power on the mantra of anti-corruption has NOT even scratched the surface, so to speak. If anything, the poor ranking of his administration by Transparency International since 2015 shows that it is more of motion than movement. This country needs a paradigm shift from our old way of fighting the cankerworm of corruption by way of institutional reforms, especially our legal and judicial architecture, otherwise our citizens will continue to wallow in unmitigated misery. 2019 presents another golden opportunity to change the narrative of under-development and under-achievement.

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on March 13, 2018:

Kayode, I really believe in your point. Thanks.

Kayode on March 13, 2018:

What a wonderful write-up, wow!. Great work sir. I want to believe that corruption is not a thing of a day. Corruption starts from our individual homes where sincerity and self control is missing between husband and wife, parent and their children. That is why it was said that 'charity begins from home". Before a leader is chosen first make enquiries about his family otherwise if you make a man who can not manage his family well a leader and he will not be able to represent his people well. He will not see corruption as anything BAD. Thanks

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on March 07, 2018:

Thanks so much Diamond

Diamond on March 07, 2018:

Kudos to this web. It helped me slot for my assignment. And I promise to be using this app regularly

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on March 06, 2018:

I really appreciate you Pearl. I will write more of the page no doubt.

Pearl on March 06, 2018:

Thank you so much sir.....u have helped me out in my assignment....sir please I hope u make more of this page... thanks once more nd God bless u....@pearl

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on February 26, 2018:

Thanks Kolawole Peter for the compliment.

Kolawole Peter on February 26, 2018:

Good job and well done sir.

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on February 07, 2018:

@ Comrade, Iteshi Chikaodiri Abraham, am happy you found my work useful to you. Am always motivated whenever I receive comment of your such because it shows am making impact.

Comrade, Iteshi Chikaodiri Abraham on February 07, 2018:

Kudos to your scholarship sir. I'm highly delighted as your work aid my presentation today. Once again I say thank you sir and God bless you with increase in knowledge.

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on January 28, 2018:

@ Zacke, I am happy you found my work useful for your assignment. Good luck.

zacke on January 28, 2018:

Thanks for helping me with my assignment, it helped alot!

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on January 23, 2018:

Thanks Adelaja zaynab and Fateema for your kind comments.

Fateema on January 21, 2018:

You helped with my assignment alot. Thanks

adelaja zaynab on January 18, 2018:

Thanks very much you have help me with my assignment

corruption bad pls avoid it

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on December 08, 2017:

You are welcome @ okunoye abdulfatai

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on November 29, 2017:

Thanks so much Phina. I will write more by God's grace.

phina on November 29, 2017:

Thanks,a lot really helped with my assignment.

corruption is really bad.love this page.

and pls make more of this.

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on November 17, 2017:

Thanks Sabinus for your comment. For the recommendation which you said is not strong enough, I suggest that you put down your own strong suggestions so that we can learn as well.

Sabinus on November 16, 2017:

Sir,your write up is beautiful but your recommendations is not strong enough to address the social dust raised above. For me,our leaders are not corrupted but victims of

inherited obnoxious legislation of the colonial masters inherent in our social institutions today.

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on October 05, 2017:

Thanks so much M.S.A

M.S.A on October 05, 2017:

That's great!!!

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on June 14, 2017:

@ Adegbonmire Henry, it is bad indeed.

Adegbonmire Henry on June 14, 2017:

Corruption is bad

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on June 04, 2017:

Thanks, Ceekay for your comment. I totally agree with your views.

Ceekay on May 30, 2017:

For as long as the majority of Nigerians find it difficult to access the basic things of life (food, clothing and shelter), they will do whatever it takes to access those things, including graft.

in modern society, those basic things have been modified to include transportation, communications and electric power.

To ease the access to those things, employment opportunities must be there. Right now, the natural resources that Nigeria is endowed with have been cornered by the less than 1% of the population - up front.

If those natural resources have been made to fire industries, and the proceeds then taxed, it would have generated employment opportunities to many Nigerians. What happens is that our natural resources are sold and the proceeds are used to run the government.

Government should only be run by tax receipts and not natural resources. If the politicians and the civil servants decide to steal, it would only affect government and not the entire society.

So tax is very crucial if we have to eradicate corruption and personal tax, though symbolic, is the most important because, "When people pay nothing, they will care nothing".

We need the people to care about who they elect to run government.

Nwaokoro Wilson on May 29, 2017:

Corruption is more deadly than Lassa fever

Peace O on April 26, 2017:

The eradication of corruption in Nigeria needs to start from the bottom up, not from the top to bottom because so far that approach has not worked but when everyone begins to hold themselves responsible, and start demanding honesty from themselves and others, then I believe we can begin to see effective changes. The younger generation in the country should also starts to demand truth and nothing but the truth from the older generation in the country and everyone in the country should stop blaming the government and our leaders and the economy for this because before Nigeria reached the position that it is in now. it was a group effort and to change it should also be a group effort. The youth should not be shut out of the process of finding a solution to this problem because the problem affects them the most . The youth of the country is also an untapped resource in all matters in the country, not just on finding an effective solution to corruption and until the leaders of the country begins to do that, the youths of Nigeria will continue to work for other nations, giving them their brains, talents and ideas.

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on April 25, 2017:

@ Balna cholli, thanks so much for your great comment and suggestion.

Okwuagbala Uzochukwu Mike P (author) from Anambra State, Nigeria on April 25, 2017:

Tracy, thanks for such appreciation.

Tracy. on April 25, 2017:

thanks for making me aware (awareness)

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