Astroturf Lobbying Undermining American Democracy
What is astroturfing
A recent, and basic, example of astroturfing is the Trump campaign's admission of hiring people to cheer at his rallies. Americans must be more adept at identifying astroturf lobbying efforts. Those who understand astroturfing are better equipped to recognize the lobbying tactic. As a reformed employee of an astroturfing company, I understand the deception the firms will undertake to protect who they are working for and their real motives.
An accepted definition of lobbying as a verb is "to solicit or try to influence the votes of members of a legislative body." All the biggest players in the American, and thus the world, economy pour copious amounts of cash into lobbying efforts. While I argue that lobbying has an important role, astroturf lobbying has no good role in a well-functioning democracy.
Dictionary.com defines astroturfing as "the deceptive tactic of simulating grassroots support for a product, cause, etc., undertaken by people or organizations with an interest in shaping public opinion"
Astroturfers are hired guns who support the cause that pays them. Many atsroturfing firms also do traditional lobbying work. You know, going to legislators offices, setting up dinners with them, playing golf, etc. With traditional lobbying, legislators know exactly who the lobbyist represents and what their interests are. That is not always true with astroturfing.
The practice is done by entities ranging from governments, think Russian trolls and meme creators, to corporations. My experience is with corporate astroturfing, so I will focus on that messy business.
Yes, America is a democracy...and a republic
I often hear, but American is not a democracy. This is a good time to point out a nation can be both a democracy and a republic. In this case, America is a representative democracy and a constitutional republic.
Corporate astroturfing examples and strategies
Corporate astroturfing Involves more than just paying people to comment on internet forums. Another online strategy is to make websites, with often wholesome sounding names, that aim to trick people into thinking the page is part of a grassroots effort. Who would suspect that something akin to "Seniors for a Strong American Healthcare System" could be part of an effort to persuade seniors to support a health insurer-backed bill that runs counter to their needs?
With most astroturf lobbying schemes, the goal is to get government officials to support or oppose a certain bill or bills. The utility of astroturfing is two-fold: getting public support for a bill thus putting pressure on lawmakers and providing lawmakers with the ammunition, or confidence, to support the cause. You see, an official who is already on board with an issue needs to know his constituency will not turn on her if she votes the wrong way on an issue. Thus, the lobbyists must garner support and let the official know how much their constituents support the effort. This is truly unfortunate when the effort is counter to the constituents needs.
The most infamous astroturfing effort came from the tobacco industry back in the 90's. In America, this effort is mainly attributed to a Phillip Morris-backed firm Burson-Marsteller. These lobbyists created the "grassroots" National Smokers Alliance. The group garnered hundreds of thousands of members and portrayed those against smoking tobacco as anti-American.
How to recognize corporate astroturfing
The big disappointment with the tobacco astroturfing effort is that not much has changed. The effort's unveiling didn't do much to help consumers recognize future efforts. I personally wrote letters for a firm that often hid behind "grassroot" organizations, which were really front organizations. Such groups were, in reality, created by companies from the following industries: pharmaceuticals, health insurance, gambling, defense contractors, medical device makers, energy companies, and likely more that I can't recall at this time.
Here's an example of a pharmaceutical astroturfing campaign that was called out by a former lobbying firm employee. This was a letter-writing campaign that wrote for a pharmaceutical front group called "Caregiver Voices United." The anonymous former employer calls the effort "antithetical to the spirit of democracy."
Astroturf lobbying strategies range from trolling and making fake news websites, to writing letters to legislators and the opinion section of newspapers. Sometimes they will call constituent's homes and ask leading questions to use the answers as part of a letter to lawmakers. They may begin by asking about broad political views before zeroing in on the real issue. At times, these efforts will target constituents from opposite ends of the political spectrum. They may contact Democrats and explain parts of a bill that are likely to appeal the them. At the same time, they are calling Republicans and relaying pieces of the bill that are likely to gain their support. Of course, neither side is made aware of the parts they are likely to not support. Additionally, the "facts" given to constituents are often cherry picked from biased studies or presented in half-truths.
Lobbyists also target government agencies. A pharmaceutical company will lobby the FDA for approval of a new drug. The FDA has public commenting periods, which are prime targets for lobbyists. However, the new drug may not get the public enthusiasm it needs if it's known who is behind the efforts. Thus, we have something akin to the "Organization for Better Diabetic Treatments." Now that's something people can get behind. This is a grassroots group, made up of diabetics and their loved ones, who are fighting to get the latest and greatest treatments onto the market. See how that works?
How astroturfing is undermining American Democracy
Fooling people into supporting something they wouldn't otherwise support is unethical. It also seems unethical for a corporation, or an entire industry, to come together under an umbrella of a "grassroots" organization. Paying people to demonstrate, write letters, call representatives, etc. is not a true grassroots effort.
The thing is, in a democratic republic, the best thing the people have going for them is that elected officials may be held accountable for their decisions. However, astroturfing distort the will of the people and the lawmakers' perception of that will.
The US does have laws concerning lobbying and even hold lawbreakers accountable now and then. You may remember Jack Abramoff? However, compared to nations such as the UK and Australia, America is an astroturfing free-for-all. In fact, Australia's law is so broad that it basically states any astroturf activities that mislead the public in any way are illegal.
Intelligence agencies determined that the 2016 American process fell victim to Russian astroturfers. The Russian hacking scandal and Russian-organized political demonstrations should make it clear how foreign governments can use astroturfing to undermine American democracy. So, perhaps it's time for the US to pass real anti-astroturfing legislation. It would help to ease corporate dominance of American politics, but perhaps even more important, it's now a matter of national security.