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Giant Snakehead Fish - US Invasive Species


Cynthia is an administrator, has a degree in Business, Economics, & History, and is a qualified Hypnotherapist. She loves to write & travel.

Giant Snakehead

Giant Snakehead

Are Snakeheads a Dangerous Invasive Fish?

Are snakehead fish a dangerous invasive species in the USA? Invasive species, whether they are animals, fish or plants, are causing a huge problem around the world. An invasive species can cause huge disruptions to fragile, local ecosystems, as they often have no natural predators in their new habitat, take over territory and food sources required by indigenous animals for survival and sometimes even destroy terrain. The discovery of a new invasive species in an area for the first time is always a cause for concern.

However, sometimes media reactions to such discoveries can throw people into a frenzy and panic by totally overhyping the possible dangers of their presence to the local population and environment. One such invasive species is the snakehead fish in the United States. They have been dubbed ‘Frankenfish’ or ‘fish from hell’ and there are already many urban myths circulating about these introduced fish. It is said that they will voraciously kill and eat everything they come across, that they can survive for up to four days out of the water, that they can travel great distances across dry land to infest new bodies of water, that they have a poisonous bite and that they can be aggressive towards humans and have even killed them.

Northern Snakehead

Northern Snakehead

About Snakehead Fish

So what is the truth about snakehead fish? They are fresh water fish and are indigenous to parts of Asia and Africa. There are 28 known different types and they can vary tremendously in size and colour. They are apex ambush predators and feed on other fish species, crustaceans, small amphibians and occasionally birds and small mammals. They can grow to a great size and there have been records of snakeheads being four feet long and weighing more than fifteen pounds.

They have long cigar-shaped bodies, large mouths with a protruding lower jaw and sharp teeth and long dorsal and anal fins. Snakeheads start off life ranging in colour from pale greys to golden brown, and darken as they mature to dark browns with black spots. Their preferred habitat is freshwater streams, ponds, ditches and swamps. All snakehead fish are air breathers and they have a high tolerance for water with low oxygen levels.

They guard their young and can become very aggressive towards anything that they perceive as a threat to their offspring. They have acquired their name from the enlarged, snake-like scales they have on their heads. Snakeheads sometimes get confused with the native North American bowfin when they are caught by anglers as they can look fairly similar.

Have Snakehead Fish Established Themselves in the USA?

Snakehead fish are considered to be an important food fish in Asia and are imported live into America for the Asian food markets in Boston and New York City. They are also popular aquarium fish and are valued for their aggressive natures and toughness. It is thought that the snakeheads that have been found in US waterways have either been pets that have been released by their owners or have been released from live food markets in the hope that a growing local population will become a good food source.

The most likely reason that aquarium keepers would have released their snakeheads is that they can no longer afford to feed them as they are voracious feeders and can consume a great number of prey fish a day. In the summer of 2002, northern snakeheads were caught in Crofton Pond in Maryland. This discovery caused widespread panic and made the national headlines. Local anglers were asked to kill any of these invasive fish that they caught. In October 2002, they were added to the list of injurious species by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, which prevented the transporting of snakeheads between states and banned the importation of all 28 species into the USA.

It is illegal to possess snakehead fish in 13 states, but not in Maryland, the District of Columbia or Virginia. It is, however, an offence to release foreign species of fish into Maryland’s waterways. Live snakeheads have been confiscated in many of the states where possession of these fish has been banned, and to exacerbate the problem further, live specimens are readily available to buy on the internet.

Even the centre of New York is not safe from invasion by the northern snakehead. US conservation workers believe that the invasive species they call the 'frankenfish' can now been found in the lakes of Central Park. Signs have been placed around Harlem Meer in the north of the park to warn anglers that, if they catch one of these fish, they should not to return it to the water but rather hand them over to officials.

Harlem Meer is due to be surveyed by the Department of Environmental Conservation to see if any snakehead fish are in fact living in the lake and, if so, how may there are. There are worries that if the invasive fish are left to breed unchecked, they will destroy the ecosystem in the lakes as they are voracious predators that feed on other fish species and amphibians. The threat of the spread of this fish is taken so seriously that in New York prohibits the possession, sale and transport of this fish and its eggs.

Finding individual live snakehead specimens in US waterways is worrying, but the biggest concern is whether or not a breeding population has been established. Breeding populations have been discovered in Maryland, Florida and California, and they seem to have permanently established themselves in the Potomac River since 2004. In Florida, bullseye snakeheads are breeding in an urban network of canals in the southeastern part of the state. Most worryingly, there have been live specimens of the giant snakehead caught from Maine down to Arkansas. Giant snakeheads are the largest of these predatory fish, and they have been known to act aggressively towards humans and even wounded them. A breeding population of giant snakeheads has not yet been found, and hopefully there never will be.

Why Are Snakeheads Such a Threat to US Ecosystems?

They are voracious apex predators that are potentially capable of decimating the local fish populations, and they also have no natural predators in the US. At all stages of their life, they compete with the native fish for food. When they are juveniles, they consume zooplankton, small crustaceans, insect larvae and the young of other fish. As adults, 90% of their large appetites are satisfied by eating other fish species, with the remaining 10% consisting of crustaceans, frogs, small reptiles and sometimes even birds and small mammals.

They also carry a disease called Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome, and scientists are desperately working to determine whether or not invasive snakeheads can pass this disease onto indigenous fish. In contained bodies of water, such as ponds, work has been done to eradicate populations of these invasive fish when they are discovered. A chemical called Rotenone has been used to kill the snakeheads, but unfortunately, it will also kill any other fish present in the water.

It is accepted, however reluctantly, that once a population has established itself in a network of fresh waterways, it is almost impossible to get rid of them. As a female snakehead can produce up to 100,000 young in a year, very large populations of the fish can establish themselves very quickly, potentially causing permanent damage to American aquatic ecosystems.

So while snakeheads are perhaps not the ‘devil fish’ portrayed by a hysterical media, as an invasive aquatic species, they have the potential to cause great damage to fragile ecosystems in the US. They can outcompete and consume the local fish. If you keep them in your aquarium, you need to be aware that it is both illegal and totally irresponsible to release them into local ponds or rivers when you wish to get rid of them for some reason. Indeed, we all need to become more aware of the dangers of invasive exotic species in our native ecosystems and ensure that we do not release any foreign fish, animal or plants into our local areas. W want to report any unusual or exotic species that we do see or catch to the appropriate authorities.

This content reflects the personal opinions of the author. It is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and should not be substituted for impartial fact or advice in legal, political, or personal matters.


Steve on April 23, 2019:

There have been no credible reports of snakeheads being caught or observed in Maine since the 1970s, so says the Maine DIFW

CMHypno (author) from Other Side of the Sun on July 02, 2014:

Thanks for reading the hub and leaving a comment Jackie. It's not the snakehead fishes fault they have been introduced into countries they don't belong in, but they are damaging local habitats so a solution needs to be found

Jackie Lynnley from the beautiful south on July 01, 2014:

I am sure many might disagree but to me these would fit in the category of snakes and my thoughts on those are there is no good one like a dead one! They no doubt will lead to much worse things. Thanks for sharing that info. I do not fish anymore but years ago there was some sort of fish (maybe carp) that would eat your fish if you left them on a stringer in the water which of course was maddening; pulling your line up with only bones on it!

CMHypno (author) from Other Side of the Sun on February 14, 2012:

I agree Brett, I don't think that people do think ahead when they are buying exotic animals as pets. A snakehead is for life and not just for Christmas as they say! Thanks for reading the hub, and making a great comment

Brett C from Asia on February 12, 2012:

I guess people just don't think ahead when buying pets, or 'disposing' of them when they become a burden. What a situation, nature will balance out, but it will surely change the situation!

Voted up, interesting and socially shared.

CMHypno (author) from Other Side of the Sun on August 12, 2011:

I will have to check out your Bowfin hub Wesman - seems like you have had some great fishing adventures!

Wesman Todd Shaw from Kaufman, Texas on August 11, 2011:

No thank you! I went fishing a lot this past spring, but didn't catch anything like the snakehead. I guess they aren't around my area - close to Dallas, Texas.

What IS around here is the pre historic Bowfin, a species of fish that looks really similar to the snakehead in shape, but not in colour. Like the snakehead, the ancient Bowfin is a fish that puts of one heck of a fight - a five pound fish will seem to be a 15 pound wish for the fight that it puts up. I wrote a hub about the Bowfin, and went into how it's NOT a snakehead in the article.

CMHypno (author) from Other Side of the Sun on August 11, 2011:

Sounds like you should get your fishing rod out then Wesman and sort the problem of this invasive species! Thanks for reading about snakehead fish and leaving a great comment.

Wesman Todd Shaw from Kaufman, Texas on August 11, 2011:

Great hub - I'm told that the snakehead isn't bad tasting, and puts up a heck of a fight - so in other words, it's a great sports fish!

I had no idea that they were in California though.

CMHypno (author) from Other Side of the Sun on March 11, 2011:

Go do your research Nicky, there is some info in the hub about snakehead offspring, but you will find a lot more detail on the net. Thanks for reading the hub and leaving a comment

Nicky Smart from United Kingdom on March 03, 2011:

i am doing a project at school abought the snakehead could you tell me abought how many eggs they lay and how often thankyou

CMHypno (author) from Other Side of the Sun on January 25, 2011:

Glad that you found the info on snakeheads useful, hary Buana, and thanks for reading and leaving a comment

hary Buana on January 24, 2011:

Nice Info

CMHypno (author) from Other Side of the Sun on December 15, 2010:

Agree with you daddy yanick, nobody should buy a snakehead unless they are sure that they know how to care for them, and unwanted snakeheads should never be put into local lakes and rivers. Thanks for the read and the comment.

daddy yanick on December 15, 2010:

really this fish is very expensive and dangerous to feed but before buying a snakehead ,we have to be concious about the difficulties of keeping such fish as pets

CMHypno (author) from Other Side of the Sun on December 02, 2010:

Snakeheads are causing quite a stir as an invasive species in the US - there has already been a horror film called 'Killer Snakeheads' made. Invasive species are a real problem in most countries and eradicating them humanely is very difficult

Katie McMurray from Ohio on December 02, 2010:

I do beleive I've seen snakehead fish in aguariums and pet stores. Very interesting report on the invasive species of snakehead fisn in the US.

CMHypno (author) from Other Side of the Sun on November 29, 2010:

Hi jeednyarx, yes it is astounding. Snakeheads are potentially a huge problem for local US ecosystems and invasive species are damaging habitats and out-competing native species in most countries of the world. Thanks for reading the hub on snakeheads and leaving a comment.

jeednyarx on November 29, 2010:

this is astounding

CMHypno (author) from Other Side of the Sun on November 28, 2010:

Thanks for reading the hub on snakeheads, theman. Female snakeheads can lay up to 50,000 eggs and Northern snakeheads spawn in June and July in their natural habitat.

theman on November 27, 2010:

i am doing a project at school abought the snakehead could you tell me abought how many eggs they lay and how often thankyou

CMHypno (author) from Other Side of the Sun on November 21, 2010:

Thanks for reading about snakehead fish in the US Sidney and leaving a great comment. I think that every country is experiencing problems with invasive species, and Australia have the cane toads, as well as feral pigs, feral camels, cattle, donkeys etc. Unfortunately, once these invasive animals have established themselves it is very hard to eradicate them

SidneyMorgan from Australia on November 21, 2010:

We have our own version of this down under that has been causing quite problem in Australia. The Cane Toad that was initial brought in to eat the beetles that were threatening the sugarcane plantations, has now out of control and is killing allot of the native wild life.

Thanks for the interesting hub.

CMHypno (author) from Other Side of the Sun on November 21, 2010:

Thanks Hello,hello for reading the hub on invasive snakehead fish in the US and leaving a great comment.

Hello, hello, from London, UK on November 21, 2010:

Thank you for such an informative, comprehensive hub. I thorughly enjoyed reading it.

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