Skip to main content

The Toxic Truth About Fluoride

  • Author:
  • Updated date:

I'm a dental hygienist, pyrography artist, avid gardener, writer, vegetarian, world traveler, and many other things!

Fluoride in toothpaste isn't all that good for your teeth.

Fluoride in toothpaste isn't all that good for your teeth.

Why I'm Passionate About the Topic of Fluoride

I'm a dental hygienist (RDH, BS-DH, RF). In school, it seemed I was always reading way deeper into topics than both my fellow students and my teachers. Instead of going out, I'd stay home and read 30 research articles on whatever dental topic I was curious about at the time. It was just a matter of time before I delved into fluoride.

What I found wading around in all the fluoride literature of the past couple hundred years was that everything I was being taught in school was wrong. It was not backed up by science. To my horror, what I found instead was that everything was quite the opposite of what they were teaching me. What they were teaching me had no foundation in science at all.

This piqued my interest, to say the least. Why would they obscure the truth? Why would they do it so deliberately? In my free time, I have looked into this topic thoroughly. Hopefully, my research will help you learn more about this common chemical.

A helicopter dumping fluoride onto crops as a pesticide/insecticide/fungicide

A helicopter dumping fluoride onto crops as a pesticide/insecticide/fungicide

A Short History of Fluoride Use

Although the most commonly known use of fluoride today is in dentistry, this is a relatively new use. Historically, fluoride has been used industrially for hundreds of years.

Fluoride is commonly used in:

  • Chemical and biological weapons
  • Drugs like Cipro and Prozac
  • Fluorocarbon refrigerant gases
  • Nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons
  • Pesticides, insecticides, and fungicides
  • Smelting aluminum, steel, and beryllium
  • Uranium enrichment

It wasn't until the late 1800s that scientists began catching on to the dangers of fluoride. The vast majority of factory workers were being killed by exposure to fluoride, and factory owners wanted an answer. Well, they didn't want the actual answer (fluoride is a neurotoxin.) What they wanted was an answer to their dilemma. How could they continue production while using a toxic substance that was killing all their workers?

The answer, it turns out, was simple. Push fluoride as a health aid instead! Studies promoting a link between fluoride and good dental health surfaced. The only problem is that all the research was funded by the very corporations that used fluoride the most!

It's a toxic waste product of many types of industry; for instance, glass production, phosphate fertilizer production, and many others. They would have no way to dispose of the tons of fluoride waste they produce unless they could find some use for it, so they made up this story about it being good for dental health. Then they can pass it through everyone's bodies and into the sewer. It is a well coordinated effort, to keep it from being declared for what it is—toxic waste.

— Dr. John R. Lee, MD, Chairman of the Environmental Health Committee, Marin County

Dental fluorosis: 60% of the population has weakened enamel from excess exposure to fluoride during enamel formation (dental fluorosis).

Dental fluorosis: 60% of the population has weakened enamel from excess exposure to fluoride during enamel formation (dental fluorosis).

Is Fluoride Good for Your Teeth?

There is no consistent, unbiased evidence that fluoride is good for any aspect of human health. On the contrary, there is overwhelming evidence that shows fluoride is toxic to man, beast, and the environment.

But isn't fluoride good for your teeth? I'm sorry to tell you that this, too, is a lie. There are thousands of research articles on fluoride. The only studies that have found fluoride use to be beneficial to teeth are those funded by corporations invested in the use of fluoride. When those studies are tossed out, everything else points to the fact that it's pure poison.

I was horrified to find out that my entire profession is based on falsehoods and outright lies. Experts on the subject of fluoride warn strenuously against its use in the human body.

The once general assumption that fluorine is necessary to the quality of the enamel rests upon an insufficient foundation. Our present knowledge most decidedly indicates that fluorine is not necessary to the quality of that tissue, but that on the contrary the enamel organ is electively sensitive to the deleterious effects of fluorine.

— Kaj Roholm ("Fluorine Intoxication: A Clinical-Hygienic Study," 1937)

Over 80 years ago, Kaj Roholm, the world's leading fluoride scientist, rejected the idea that fluoride was at all beneficial to the teeth. He agreed with earlier studies that found fluoride weakens the enamel, and he explicitly warned against giving fluoride to kids.

Thin, fragile, weakened enamel is a common side effect of chronic fluoride use during childhood when the teeth and enamel are still developing. It's so prevalent that 60% of the population suffers from weakened enamel (fluorosis.) Dental fluorosis indicates fluoride poisoning, just like a blue line on the gum tissues indicates lead poisoning.

Fluoridation of Drinking Water

Although fluoride naturally exists in soil and water in low concentrations, the three types of fluoride added to toothpastes and mouthwashes—sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, and acidulated phosphate fluoride—are manufactured in chemical plants. None of them are "natural."

Some dentists are unaware that much of the fluoride added to drinking water today in the United States is actually an industrial waste, "scrubbed" from the smokestacks of Florida phosphate fertilizer mills to prevent it from damaging livestock and crops in the surrounding countryside. In a sweetheart deal these phosphate companies are spared the expense of disposing of this "fluorosilicic acid" in a toxic waste dump. Instead, the acid is sold to municipalities, shipped in rubber-lined tanker trucks to reservoirs across North America and injected into drinking water for the reduction of cavities in children. (So toxic are the contents of the fluoride trucks that in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack, authorities were alerted to keep a watchful eye on road shipments of the children's tooth decay reducer.)

— Chris Bryson, The Fluoride Deception

WHO data showing tooth decay trends in children, with and without water fluoridation

WHO data showing tooth decay trends in children, with and without water fluoridation

Does Fluoridation Prevent Tooth Decay?

The chart above shows countries that fluoridated compared with countries that didn't. The decline of their cavity rates is similar, with or without fluoride. This means that fluoride added to the water supply is unnecessary. And as we'll see again, its addition to the human body is nothing short of criminal.

Tooth decay rates have definitely decreased since the mid-1940s, when water fluoridation first began in the US (in 1945 in Grand Rapids, MI.) The pro-fluoride groups, of course, claim this is due to water fluoridation. I think by now you're seeing a pattern here, though.

In truth, tooth decay rates were already decreasing due to factors unrelated to fluoride introduction—or, perhaps, in spite of it. It just so happened that fluoridation was occurring at the same time as other factors that were actually decreasing tooth decay—factors like increased access to professional dental care, vastly improved dental care practices amongst the population (due to better dental education), improved nutrition, and—of course—the mainstream use of antibiotics.

In regard to the use of fluorosilicic acid as a source of fluoride for fluoridation, this agency regards such use as an ideal environmental solution to a long-standing problem. By recovering byproduct fluorosilicic acid from fertilizer manufacturing, water and air pollution are minimized.

— Rebecca Hanmer, Fmr Deputy Assistant Administrator for Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

This amounts to public murder on a grand scale. It is a public crime—it would be—to put fluoride in the drinking water of people.

— Dean Burk, PhD, Chief Emeritus, National Cancer Institute (head of the NCI's cytochemistry section)

Is Fluoride Toxic?

Have you ever read the warnings on your toothpaste? I haven't used toothpaste containing fluoride for over 15 years, but I still remember them. They tell you not to swallow the toothpaste, and if you do, to call a poison control center "right away."

I know that dental professionals usually gloss right over this, but I sure don't. That warning is there because fluoride is an infamous and highly documented killer. All quality research of the past couple hundred years is unanimous.

Unfortunately, in school, we were taught to accept and not to question. But I sure questioned things when I discovered the following:

"Neurotoxin" is not fluoride's only scientific classification. Countless articles in the vast scientific literature pin fluoride with these other classifications as well.

Scientific Fluoride Classifications

  • Carcinogen: capable of causing cancer in living tissue
  • Clastogen: mutagenic agent inducing disruption or breakage of chromosomes
  • Cytotoxin: substance toxic to cells
  • Genotoxin: chemical agent that damages the genetic information within a cell
  • Low-Dose Endocrine Disruptor: endocrine system (hormone) disruption at low doses
  • Mitogen: substance that induces or stimulates mitosis (cell division)
  • Mutagen: chemical substance that causes genetic mutation
  • Neurotoxin: toxin that is poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue
  • Poison: substance capable of causing the illness or death of a living organism
Because of fluoride's ability to bind easily with calcium, around half of ingested fluoride is stored in the bones. In cases of chronic fluoride exposure, this contributes to the development of skeletal fluorosis and low IQ.

Because of fluoride's ability to bind easily with calcium, around half of ingested fluoride is stored in the bones. In cases of chronic fluoride exposure, this contributes to the development of skeletal fluorosis and low IQ.

From 30,000–50,000 deaths/year are directly traceable to fluoridation [in the US]; 10,000-20,000 of these deaths are from fluoride-induced cancers. Fluoride makes your body absorb extra aluminum. And where does the aluminum go? Your brain. And what metal shows up alarmingly in the brains of Alzheimer's victims? You guessed it.

— Dr. John Yiamouyiannis, Ph.D. (Biochemistry)

List of the Toxic Side Effects of Fluoride

  • Alzheimer's and dementia
  • Arthritis
  • Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease
  • CNS degradation
  • Cancer and tumors
  • Dental fluorosis
  • Depression
  • Down syndrome
  • Endocrine system interference
  • Genetic disorders and cell death
  • Hyperactivity and ADHD
  • Hypothyroid and thyroid malfunction, and goiter
  • Impaired brain function
  • Infertility and damaged sperm
  • Kidney damage
  • Liver damage
  • Low IQ and mental retardation
  • Neuro-developmental disabilities, autism, and dyslexia
  • Osteoporosis, bone fractures, and hip fractures
  • Pineal gland calcification
  • Precocious puberty
  • Premature aging and collagen destruction
  • Skeletal fluorosis
Dean Burk, Ph.D., Chief Emeritus, U.S. National Cancer Institute (former head of the NCI's cytochemistry section)

Dean Burk, Ph.D., Chief Emeritus, U.S. National Cancer Institute (former head of the NCI's cytochemistry section)

Alternatives to Fluoride

Xylitol Is 5–6 Times More Effective at Preventing Tooth Decay

The best and healthiest alternative to fluoride for teeth is xylitol. Xylitol is a naturally occurring, non-fermentable sugar found in birch trees. It also occurs naturally in the body. Not only does it not contribute to tooth decay, but it's safe for diabetics as well (GI 7.)

Xylitol has a similar sweetness to sugar but is non-cariogenic (doesn't contribute to tooth decay) and is anti-cariogenic (prevents tooth decay and promotes remineralization.) Xylitol has been shown to prevent and decrease cavity formation 5–6 times more effectively than topical fluoride (71% cavity reduction from xylitol compared to 14% from fluoride.) One study even found that up to five years after a single use of xylitol, its effects on oral bacteria prevent them from being able to attach to your teeth.

Tips to Reduce Your Exposure to Fluoride

  • Invest in a filtration system that can filter out fluoride. Fluoride has an extremely small particle size and requires filters that specifically target the fluoride ions.
  • Avoid processed foods and drinks that can absorb fluoride from equipment and water used in the manufacturing process.
  • Avoid Teflon-coated and non-stick pans (these contain fluoride.)
  • Avoid drugs that use fluoride compounds, such as Cipro, Levaquin, and Prozac.

The face-lift performed on fluoride more than seventy years ago has fooled a lot of people. Instead of images of crippled workers or a cancer patient, we see smiling children.

— Chris Bryson, The Fluoride Deception

Rubber-lined fluoride tanker at a water treatment plant

Rubber-lined fluoride tanker at a water treatment plant


1. Abraham GE. Iodine Supplementation Markedly Increases Urinary Excretion of Fluoride and Bromide [Internet]. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. 2003 [cited 2017Jan10]. Available from:

2. Akinrinade ID, Memudu AE, Ogundele OM. Fluoride and Aluminium Disturb Neuronal Morphology, Transport Functions, Cholinesterase, Lysosomal, and Cell Cycle Activities. Pathophysiology. 2015Apr2;22(2):105–15.

3. Banji D, Banji OJ, Pratusha NG, Annamalai A. Investigation on the Role of Spirulina Platensis in Ameliorating Behavioural Changes, Thyroid Dysfunction, and Oxidative Stress in Offspring of Pregnant Rats Exposed to Fluoride. Food Chemistry. 2013Sep1;140(1-2):321–31.

4. Barbier O, Arreola-Mendoza L, Razo LMD. Molecular Mechanisms of Fluoride Toxicity. Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2010Nov5;188(2):319–33.

5. Bartos M, Gumilar F, Bras C, Gallegos CE, Giannuzzi L, Cancela LM, et al. Neurobehavioural Effects of Exposure to Fluoride in the Earliest Stages of Rat Development. Physiology & Behavior. 2015Aug1;147:205–12.

6. Bassin EB, Wypij D, Davis RB, Mittleman MA. Age-specific Fluoride Exposure in Drinking Water and Osteosarcoma (United States). Cancer Causes & Control. 2006;17(4):421–8.

7. Bryson C. The Donora Fluoride Fog: A Secret History of America's Worst Air Pollution Disaster [Internet].; 1998 [cited 2017Jan7]. Available from:

8. Bryson C. The Fluoride Deception. New York: Seven Stories Press; 2004.

9. Burgstahler AW, Miller GW, Krishnamachari KAVR, Waldbott EM. Effect of Borax in Treatment of Skeletal Fluorosis. Fluoride 1987; 20(1): 24-27.

10. Chirumari K, Reddy PK. Dose-Dependent Effects of Fluoride on Neurochemical Milieu in the Hippocampus and Neocortex of Rat Brain. Fluoride. 2007;40:101–10.

11. Choi AL, Zhang Y, Sun G, Bellinger DC, Wang K, Yang XJ, et al. Association of Lifetime Exposure to Fluoride and Cognitive Functions in Chinese Children: A Pilot Study. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 2015Feb;47:96–101.

12. Choi AL, Sun G, Zhang Y, Grandjean P. Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2012;120(10):1362–8.

13. Chronic Fluorine Intoxication. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1943Sep18;123(3):150–1.

14. CIEC Promoting Science at the University of York, York, UK [Internet]. Fluorine. [cited 2017Jan7]. Available from:

15. Cox GJ, Hodge HC. The Toxicity of Fluorides in Relation to Their Use in Dentistry. The Journal of the American Dental Association. 1950Apr;40(4):440–51.

16. Danielson C, Lyon JL, Egger M, Goodenough GK. Hip Fractures and Fluoridation in Utah's Elderly Population. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 1992Aug12;268(6):746–8.

17. Das K, Mondal NK. Dental Fluorosis and Urinary Fluoride Concentration as a Reflection of Fluoride Exposure and its Impact on IQ Level and BMI of Children of Laxmisagar, Simlapal Block of Bankura District, W.B., India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2016Mar9;188(4).

18. Dey S, Swarup D, Saxena A, Dan A. In Vivo Efficacy of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) Fruit Extract on Experimental Fluoride Exposure in Rats. Research in Veterinary Science. 2011Dec;91(3):422–5.

19. Dong Y-T, Wang Y, Wei N, Zhang Q-F, Guan Z-Z. Deficit in Learning and Memory of Rats with Chronic Fluorosis Correlates with the Decreased Expressions of M1 and M3 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors. Archives of Toxicology. 2014Nov23;89(11):1981–91.

20. Dwyer M. Impact of Fluoride on Neurological Development in Children [Internet]. Harvard News. Harvard School of Public Health; 2014 [cited 2017Jan7]. Available from:

21. Ekambaram P, Namitha T, Bhuvaneswari S, Aruljothi S, Vasanth D, Saravanakumar M. Therapeutic Efficacy of Tamarindus Indica (L) to Protect Against Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver of Female Rats. Fluoride. 2010Jun;43(2)134-140.

22. Fluoride: A Modern Toxic Waste [Internet]. Bibliotecapleyades. [cited 2017Jan7]. Available from:

23. Fluorides in Industry and Health [Internet]. Creation Concepts. [cited 2017Jan7]. Available from:

24. Fomon SJ, Ekstrand J, Ziegler EE. Fluoride Intake and Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis: Trends in Fluoride Intake with Special Attention to Infants. Journal of Public Health Dentistry. 2000;60(3):131–9.

25. Full CA, Parkins FM. Effect of Cooking Vessel Composition on Fluoride. Journal of Dental Research. 1975Feb;54(1):192.

26. Galletti P-M, Joyet G. Effect of Fluorine on Thyroidal Iodine Metabolism in Hyperthyroidism. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 1958;18(10):1102–10.

27. Grandjean P, Landrigan PJ. Neurobehavioural Effects of Developmental Toxicity. The Lancet Neurology. 2014Feb14;13(3):330–8.

28. Guan ZZ, Wang YN, Xiao KQ, Dai DY, Chen YH, Liu JL, et al. Influence of Chronic Fluorosis on Membrane Lipids in Rat Brain. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 1998;20:537–42.

29. Gutowska I, Baranowska-Bosiacka I, Baśkiewicz M, Milo B, Siennicka A, Marchlewicz M, et al. Fluoride as a Pro-Inflammatory Factor and Inhibitor of ATP Bioavailability in Differentiated Human THP1 Monocytic Cells. Toxicology Letters. 2010Jul1;196(2):74–9.

30. Hileman B. Fluoride Risks are Still a Challenge. Chemical & Engineering News Archive. 2006Apr;84(36):34–7.

31. Huang M, Isgett Z, Walton L. Ask a Toxicologist: Is it Safe to Use Teflon Pans? [Internet]. University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill; 2015 [cited 2017Jan10]. Available from:

32. Iheozor-Ejiofor Z, Worthington HV, Walsh T, O'Malley L, Clarkson JE, Macey R, et al. Water Fluoridation for the Prevention of Dental Caries. Cochrane Oral Health Group. 2015Jun18.

33. Kaj Roholm [Internet]. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation; [cited 2017Jan7]. Available from:

34. Kemp FH, Murray MM, Wilson DC. Spondylosis Deformans in Relation to Fluorine and General Nutrition. The Lancet. 1942Jul25;240(6204):93–7.

35. Khan SA, Singh RK, Navit S, Chadha D, Johri N, Navit P, et al. Relationship Between Dental Fluorosis and Intelligence Quotient of School Going Children in and Around Lucknow District: A Cross-Sectional Study. Journal Of Clinical And Diagnostic Research. 2015Nov1;9(11):10–5.

36. Khandare AL, Kumar PU, Lakshmaiah N. Beneficial Effect of Tamarind Ingestion on Fluoride Toxicity in Dogs. Fluoride. 2000;33(1):33-38.

37. Khandare AL, Kumar PU, Shanker RG, Venkaiah K, Lakshmaiah N. Additional Beneficial Effect of Tamarind Ingestion Over Defluoridated Water Supply to Adolescent Boys in a Fluorotic Area. Nutrition. 2004;20(5):433–6.

38. Khandare AL, Rao GS, Lakshmaiah N. Effect of Tamarind Ingestion on Fluoride Excretion in Humans. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002Feb;56(1):82–5.

39. Kurdi MS. Chronic Fluorosis: The Disease and its Anaesthetic Implications. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia. 2016Mar;60(3):157–62.

40. Li XS, Zhi JL, Gao RO. Effect of Fluoride Exposure on Intelligence in Children. Fluoride. 1995Jan;28(4):189-92.

41. Li Y, Jing X, Chen D, Wang Z. Effects of Endemic Fluoride Poisoning on the Intellectual Development of Children in Baotou. Fluoride. 2008Apr;41(2):161-64.

42. Linsman JF, Mcmurray CA. Fluoride Osteosclerosis from Drinking Water. Radiology. 1943May;40(5):474–84.

43. Liu F, Ma J, Zhang H, Liu P, Liu Y-P, Xing B, et al. Fluoride Exposure During Development Affects Both Cognition and Emotion in Mice. Physiology & Behavior. 2014Jan30;124:1–7.

44. Lu Y, Sun ZR, Wu LN, Wang X, Lu W, Liu SS, et al. Effect of High-Fluoride Water on Intelligence in Children. Fluoride. 2000;33(2):74-78.

45. Main D. Fluoridation May Not Prevent Cavities, Scientific Review Shows [Internet]. Newsweek. 2016 [cited 2017Jan7]. Available from:

46. Main D. Water Fluoridation May Increase Risk of Underactive Thyroid Disorder[Internet]. Newsweek. 2016 [cited 2017Jan14]. Available from:

47. Malin AJ, Till C. Exposure to Fluoridated Water and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prevalence Among Children and Adolescents in the United States: An Ecological Association. Environmental Health. 2015Feb27;14(1).

48. Mateljan G. What is the Healthiest Type of Cookware? [Internet]. World's Healthiest Foods. 2016 [cited 2017Jan10]. Available from:

49. Matsuo S, Kiyomiya K-I, Kurebe M. Mechanism of Toxic Action of Fluoride in Dental Fluorosis: Whether Trimeric G Proteins Participate in the Disturbance of Intracellular Transport of Secretory Ameloblast Exposed to Fluoride. Archives of Toxicology. 1998Dec;72(12):798–806.

50. Mercola DJ. Harvard Study Confirms Fluoride Reduces Children's IQ [Internet]. The Huffington Post.; 2013 [cited 2017Jan7]. Available from:

51. Olson R, Bosso CJ, Rochefort DA, Hayes C. The Politics of Water Fluoridation from a Problem Definition Perspective [Internet]. Boston (Mass.): Northeastern University; 2008 [cited 2017Jan7]. Available from:

52. Peckham S, Lowery D, Spencer S. Are Fluoride Levels in Drinking Water Associated with Hypothyroidism Prevalence in England? A Large Observational Study of GP Practice Data and Fluoride Levels in Drinking Water. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2015Feb24;69(7):619–24.

53. Riggs BL, Baylink DJ, Kleerekoper M, Lane JM, Melton LJ 3rd, Meunier PJ. Incidence of Hip Fractures in Osteoporotic Women Treated with Sodium Fluoride. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 1989Apr4;2(2):223-5.

54. Rocha-Amador D, Navarro ME, Carrizales L, Morales R, Calderón J. Decreased Intelligence in Children and Exposure to Fluoride and Arsenic in Drinking Water. Cadernos de Saúde Pública. 2007;23:579–87.

55. Roholm K. Fluorine Intoxication: A Clinical-Hygienic Study, With a Review of the Literature and Some Experimental Investigations. Copenhagen: Nyt Nordisk Forlag; London, H.K. Lewis & Co. Ltd.; 1937.

56. Saxena S, Sahay A, Goel P. Effect of Fluoride Exposure on the Intelligence of School Children in Madhya Pradesh, India. Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice. 2012Aug;3(2):144–9.

57. Sebastian S, Sunitha S. A Cross-Sectional Study to Assess the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of School Going Children Aged 10-12 Years in Villages of Mysore District, India With Different Fluoride Levels. Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry. 2015;33(4):307–11.

58. Seraj B, Shahrabi M, Shadfar M, Ahmadi R, Fallahzadeh M, Farrokh Eslamlu H, et al. Effect of High Water Fluoride Concentration on the Intellectual Development of Children in Makoo/Iran. Journal of Dentistry (Tehran). 2012Sep30;9(3):221-229.

59. Sharkey TP, Simpson WM. Accidental Sodium Fluoride Poisoning: Report of Eight Cases with One Fatality. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1933Jan14;100(2):97–100.

60. Sharma JD, Sohu D, Jaipur PJ. Prevalence of Neurological Manifestations in a Human Population Exposed to Fluoride in Drinking Water. Fluoride. 2009Apr;42(2):127-32.

61. Singh N, Verma K, Verma P, Sidhu G, Sachdeva S. A Comparative Study of Fluoride Ingestion Levels, Serum Thyroid Hormone & TSH Level Derangements, Dental Fluorosis Status Among School Children from Endemic and Non-endemic Fluorosis Areas. SpringerPlus. 2014Jan3;3:7.

62. Tamarind Fluoride Detox: Clear the Mind and Pineal Gland [Internet]. Natural Life Energy. 2016 [cited 2017Jan10]. Available from:

63. The 1948 Donora Fluoride Smog Historical Marker [Internet]. [cited 2017Jan7]. Available from:

64. Treasure E, Chestnutt I, Whiting P, Mcdonagh M, Wilson P, Kleijnen J. Systematic Review of Water Fluoridation. British Dental Journal. 2000Oct7;321(7265): 855-859.

65. Vasant RA, Narasimhacharya AVRL. Ameliorative Effect of Tamarind Leaf on Fluoride-Induced Metabolic Alterations. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine. 2012Nov;17(6):484–93.

66. Whitford GM. Fluoride Metabolism and Excretion in Children. Journal of Public Health Dentistry. 1999;59(4):224–8.

67. Whyte MP, Totty WG, Lim VT, Whitford GM. Skeletal Fluorosis from Instant Tea. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2008Jul;23(5):759–69.

68. Xiang Q, Liang Y, Chen B, Chen L. 2011. Analysis of Children’s Serum Fluoride Levels in Relation to Intelligence Scores in a High and Low Fluoride Water Village in China. Fluoride. 2011Oct;44(4):191-94.

69. Xiang Q, Liang Y, Chen L, Wang C, Chen B, Chen X, et al. Effect of Fluoride in Drinking Water on Children's Intelligence. Fluoride. 2003;36:84–94.

70. Yin S, Song C, Wu H, Chen X, Zhang Y. Adverse Effects of High Concentrations of Fluoride on Characteristics of the Ovary and Mature Oocyte of Mouse. PLoS One. 2015Jun8;10(6).

71. Zaho LB, Liang GH, Zhang DN, Wu XR. Effect of a High Fluoride Water Supply on Children's Intelligence. Fluoride. 1996;29:190–2.

72. Zhang S, Zhang X, Liu H, Qu W, Guan Z, Zeng Q, et al. Modifying Effect of COMT Gene Polymorphism and a Predictive Role for Proteomics Analysis in Children's Intelligence in Endemic Fluorosis Area in Tianjin, China. Toxicological Sciences. 2015Jan1;144(2):238–45.

73. Zong-Cheng L, En-Huei W. Osteoporosis: An Early Radiographic Sign of Endemic Fluorosis. Skeletal Radiology. 1986;15(5):350–3.

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.

© 2018 Kate P