What Should I Know About Mexico’s Drug Cartels?
Mexico’s Drug Cartels are everyone’s problem
Mexico’s drug cartels seem to be at war wherever there's money to be made. Sophisticated and deadly, these drug armies have spread their dastardly trade throughout Mexico and into many other countries in Latin America. Incredibly ruthless and vengeful, the cartels’ paramilitary units kill tens of thousands of people each year, while controlling much of the world’s supply of cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and marijuana, generating an estimated $40 billion per year in profits.
The tentacles of the cartels have also reached into the United States, where they control as much as 70 per cent of the drug trafficking. (This struggle has sometimes been called America’s Third War.) If a country with the resources of the U.S. can’t eliminate the cartels or at least reduce their strength significantly, what can be done about them?
Please read on to see what the world is up against in this herculean battle against perhaps the most formidable army of organized criminals the world has ever seen.
Origin of the Cartels
The Godfather of Mexico’s drug cartels is former Mexican police agent Miguel Angel Felix Gallardo, who controlled Mexico’s drug trade in the 1980s. Then, in an effort to decentralize his operation and make it less vulnerable, Gallardo assigned the drug trafficking operations of certain regions of the country to various Mexican crime families. But by the late 1980s, this Mexican Mafia eventually became the infamous drug cartels, which fought tooth and nail against anyone or anything aligned against them. Soon, as profits ballooned, they began fighting among themselves as well.
No city in Mexico has suffered more from the ravages of the cartels than Ciudad Juarez, located just across the border from El Paso, Texas. This entry point into the lucrative drug market in the U.S. has become a battleground where everyone seems to be a target. In July 2010 a car bomb planted by the Juarez Cartel killed 15 people, most of them young people. Drug-related violence has killed thousands of people in Juarez.
As an example of how devilish the Juarez Cartel can be, it has developed an insidious way to smuggle drugs across the border by planting them in the cars of innocent people. The cartel gains entry to the vehicles by using locksmiths who have access to the VIN of automobiles, for which keys can then be made. Using GPS devices, the vehicles are tracked from Juarez to El Paso and then the contraband picked up. Numerous people have gone to jail or prison for smuggling drugs they didn’t know they had in the trunks of their cars!
Also, as cartels tend to do, the Juarez Cartel has been responsible for numerous kidnappings, business extortions and murders for hire, generating sidebar profits to the drug trade. This nefarious “business” has led to a turf war between the Juarez Cartel and the notorious Sinaloa Cartel, also known as the Golden Triangle.
Sinaloa Drug Cartel
According an NPR article entitled “A Look at Mexico’s Drug Cartels” published in April 2009, the Sinaloa Cartel smuggles Colombian cocaine and Mexican marijuana into the U.S. The cartel also operates numerous methamphetamine labs and ships heroin from Southeast Asia, much of this international junk ending up in the U.S.
But trafficking in cocaine seems to be the cartel’s major game. Its operation reaches from Mexico into Southern California and across the country to New York City, moving tons of cocaine into seemingly insatiable markets, overseen by local gangsters working in league with the cartel.
Weapons Bought in the United States
According to an article in the Los Angeles Times entitled “Guns in the U.S. Equip Cartels,” the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) estimates that 90 per cent of all guns seized in raids come from the U.S. Keep in mind, this doesn’t mean 90 per cent of all firearms used by the cartels are of U.S. origin. Many are purchased from countries such as Guatemala and Portugal. The percentage for U.S. origin may be closer to 27% to 44%, according to the Office of Inspector General, in a study done in November 2010. The exact percentage may be impossible to ascertain.
Many of these weapons are military in nature – high-caliber rifles, semi-automatic pistols and assault rifles, including AK-47s. Moreover, many gun shops have opened north of the Mexican border, and area gun shows offer buyers easy access to guns of all sorts. Tom Mangan, an ATF special agent pointed out that as the drugs head north, the firearms flow south, making armies out of the cartels.
Armored Vehicles or “Tanks”
Also called cokemobiles, some cartels have made their own tanks by converting cargo trucks. These makeshift armored vehicles are used to transport drugs, weapons and some can hold as many as 20 men. Antitank weapons are needed to combat them. However, these narco tanks have a weakness: they use rubber tires which can be shot out and deflated. The tracks used on heavy equipment and military tanks would probably be more effective.
On a related note, in July 2008, a 30-foot narco submarine carrying more than five tons of cocaine was confiscated off the southwest coast of Oaxaca.
Drug Cartels in the U.S.
It’s been estimated that 70 per cent of the drug trafficking in the U.S. is controlled by the Mexican drug cartels. But the U.S. appears to have no Mexican-like drug cartels. Why? According to a story entitled “Why the U.S. Doesn’t Have Mexico-style Drug Cartels” on the website Insight.org, the answer is that the U.S. does have drug cartels – they’re called street gangs and prison gangs.
In the U.S., where law enforcement is more effective and well-funded than it is in Mexico, any large drug cartel would attract the attention of the police and, aided by the military if needed, thereby bring about its own demise. Instead the drug trade is handled by smaller units that work with Mexican partners. In fact, drugs are often distributed on consignment, that is no money is paid up front, allowing the gangs greater latitude in distribution. The cartels operate wholesale, while the gangs manage the retail. According to the World Drug Report, the U.S. drug market is worth an estimated $30 billion per year.
America’s Frankenstein – Los Zetas
In an effort to help combat the Mexican cartels, the United States trained a group of Mexican soldiers that could confront the cartels with advanced weaponry. (Some of these soldiers may have been trained at the military School of Americas.) Los Zetas were among the first cartel thugs to use paramilitary tactics, brandishing weapons such as 50-caliber machine guns, grenade launchers and even ground-to-air missiles.
Unfortunately, the Zetas switched sides, becoming enforcers for the Gulf Cartel, the chief narcotraffickers on Mexico’s east coast. It’s likely the Gulf Cartel paid better than the Mexican government. Evidence of this is that one-eighth of Mexican soldiers eventually desert.
Los Zetas Recruits Kids
Throughout the state of Texas, Los Zetas is recruiting children as young as 11 to perform tasks for the cartel. For instance, Los Zetas has children move cars to see if the vehicles are under surveillance; it also has kids sell drugs or act as lookouts. Of course, when children are busted they receive much lighter sentences, a situation which Los Zetas exploits as much as possible. The cartels have a name for these kids: the expendables.
Corruption in Mexico
As many people know, corruption in Mexico is legendary. But since the rise of the Mexican drug cartels in the late 1990s, corruption has blossomed like a vast plain of opium poppies. The drug cartels are difficult enough to fight, but corruption compounds the battle significantly. Police, military and public officials have been implicated in taking bribes by the cartels. The list of alleged instances of corruption would be too long to list here.
Be that as it may, for example, in December 2005, 1,500 of Mexico’s Federal Investigations Agency’s 7,000 agents were under investigation for possible collusion with the drug cartels. In addition, in June 2007, President Calderon, suspecting bribery among his law enforcement people, dismissed 284 federal police commanders from states throughout Mexico.
In March 2010, the U.S. bank Wachovia paid $110 million in fines for receiving as much as $378 billion from various Mexican drug cartels, in spite of the anti-laundering protocols in place. (Many other banks have been implicated in such illegal practices.)
According to the story “How a Big U.S. Bank Laundered Billions from Mexico’s Murderous Drug Gangs,” as provided on the website Guardian.co.uk, Antonio Maria Costa, head of the United Nations office on drugs and crime during the banking crisis in 2008, said he had evidence suggesting the proceeds from drug trafficking and other crimes were "the only liquid investment capital" available to banks facing financial collapse. “Inter-bank loans were funded by money that originated from the drug trade,” he said. "There were signs that some banks were rescued that way."
After Wachovia received pressure from the U.S. Attorney General’s office, the Mexican cartels, essentially in protest, withdrew their money from Wachovia and other banks, and then the world credit crunch began a month later in August 2007. Shockingly, the withdrawal of this drug money from banks around the world may have precipitated the global financial meltdown!
Cartels Increase Smuggling of Pot and Heroin to US
According to the story “Mexico’s Drug Cartels Adapt to US Pot Legalization,” as shown on MSN.com, dated March 7, 2015, the cartels are expanding production of pot in Mexico, because three states in the US have legalized the recreational use of marijuana, while 23 states have legalized medical use. The US marijuana market is worth an estimated $41 billion per year.
As for heroin, the cartels have expanded its production in recent years too. In the state of Guerrero, where 43 students were allegedly murdered by a police-backed gang in September 2014, heroin production has increased by 300 per cent. The main reason for this expansion is that in the US restrictions have increased on prescription opioids in recent years, making them harder to obtain and more expensive. Heroin, however, is often much easier to get and cheaper as well.
Mexico’s Biggest Drug Cartel?
Per the article “Fighting Mexico’s New Super Cartel,” as provided by thedailybeast.com, dated March 25, 2016, the crumbling pueblo of Tecalcatepec has become a major distribution point for methamphetamine and controlled by the so-called Jalisco New Generation Cartel (JNGC), a Mexican mafia crime organization that’s incredibly violent even by the standards of the country’s other drugs cartels. Extremely large and ruthless, the JNGC murdered in 2011 30 members of a rival cartel, 12 of whom were women, and then dumped their bodies on a busy highway.
In recent times, the JNGC has attacked police and military units, killing dozens of police officers and shooting down an army helicopter and then slaughtering the crew. Also, the JNGC has cells within the US, and its founder, known as El Mencho, has been trafficking drugs into the US for over two decades, prompting a price on his head of five million dollars. Fairly soon, the JNGC hopes to capture Tijuana, an extremely lucrative drug entrepot to the US.
It won’t be easy to beat Mexico’s drug cartels. Their numbers are too numerous, their soldiers too murderous, their armies too well-equipment and their pockets too deep. Harder still to defeat is humankind’s penchant for avarice, power, weapons and drugs. An all encompassing war waged by the Mexican government against the cartels, perhaps in conjunction with units of the U.S. military might weaken them a great deal, but for how long? Wouldn’t they grow back like a weed?
The answer to that question, my friend, is blowing in the wind.
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© 2011 Kelley