I'm a professor of history, but my articles (like my classes) cover a range of topics, including education, politics, history, and culture.
1960s: A Time of Youth Rebellion
It would be interesting to conduct a study on the history of adolescence. I suspect that the stereotype of the sullen, rebellious, troublemaking teenager is a fairly modern concept. In a world where eighteen year olds are no longer viewed as adults, it is not surprising that they have a tendency to rebel against the authority figures “holding them down.” Still, I would not be surprised if ancient Egyptian parents were often complaining about their teenagers. Ancient teenagers, after all, just like the modern versions, had raging hormones and brains without a fully developed ability to utilize common sense.
The ultimate example of modern youth rebellion, however, would have to be the counterculture of the 1960s. And to a certain degree, this is simply the classic story of young people lashing out against the values and goals of their parents—only in this case, the behaviors of these hippies were, to put it lightly, a bit more extreme. So why did this pot-smoking, “free-love”-engaging, psychedelic-rock-listening youth generation appear at this particular point in American history?
Where Did Those Hippies Come From?
If this started off as essentially a rebellion of young people against their parents, then the place to begin would be the typical parent/child relationship in post-World War II America. Parents having large numbers of children during the initial “Baby Boom” period of the late 1940s and early 1950s were typically children of the Depression. Many grew up in tough times, with their economic situation often not improving until the beginning of World War II, the worst war in human history and a conflict in which many of these new parents had seen combat. Needless to say, the first 20–30 years of their lives were filled with trauma, insecurity, and possibly horrific violence. And due to various levels of post-traumatic stress, they may not have exactly been in touch with their emotions. Like Don Draper in the television series Mad Men, there were certain experiences and emotions that they preferred to shove under the rug, limiting their ability to connect emotionally with anyone.
Their kids, of course, often had entirely different experiences. The United States after World War II became the wealthiest nation in human history, and the middle class suburbanites, who for decades had been a privileged minority, were now the norm. Unprecedented numbers of Americans, through the combination of the economic boom, cheap housing, and government aid through the GI Bill, had the opportunity to live the so-called American Dream. These children of the Depression, seeking in these suburbs the security that they often lacked as children, now had the opportunity to buy their children happiness. And in these cookie-cutter neighborhoods surrounded preferably by people just like them, they could also shield their kids from the dangers of the outside world.
It turns out, of course, that material prosperity and safety do not guarantee happiness. One of the blessings of prosperity, in fact, is the opportunity to seek more out of life than survival. And these kids born and raised in suburbs were unable to appreciate fully how blessed their life really was. So as these kids grew up, they inevitably began to experience the “crises” familiar to anyone was has ever been a middle class child: nasty cases of acne, a romantic crush that does not quite go the way you would like, a mean teacher, a lost friendship, not making the basketball team, or other “life threatening” scenarios.
But if these kids shared their feelings about these issues with their parents, then mom or dad – especially dad – might break off into one of their typical sermons: “When I was a kid, I barely had enough to eat, and you are complaining about a few pimples”; “I was working to support my family when I was twelve, and you can’t even keep up your grades”; or “I was walking to school in the snow –uphill, both ways - when I was your age, so get over it.”
Needless to say, for parents who had lived through some difficult times and had trouble facing up to their own emotions, they might not be particularly empathetic when it came to their kids’ childhood problems. An even larger than usual generation gap was inevitable, which may have played a significant part in feeding an unusually intense youth rebellion when these kids reached their teenage years beginning in the early 1960’s.
How the Generation Gap of the '60s Played Out
This generation gap, however, also played out on a more societal, political level. As they grew up in their suburban, relatively sheltered “bubble world,” they were generally taught in their schools and by their parents that the United States was the greatest country on earth. We were the earth’s shining example of freedom, liberty, and equality engaged in a global struggle against the godless, totalitarian regime of the Soviet Union. And like all children raised by parents seeking to shield them from some of the ugly realities of the world, they initially accepted what they were taught without question. At some point, however, we all have to grow up, and as these kids came of age in the era of television, the Civil Rights Movement, and eventually, the Vietnam War, they began to see the disconnect between the ideas embedded into them as kids and the reality of life in the United States and around the world. If the United States was a shining example of freedom and equality, then why were African-Americans forced to struggle so hard for the right to go to certain schools, drink out of certain drinking fountains, or even cast a vote? Is this global struggle versus communism worth the cost of shipping young people halfway around the world to kill and be killed in a country few Americans knew much of anything about?
Apparently, this country, created by old people, was not all it was cracked up to be. And if their parents and educators were full of it when they sang the praises of America, then maybe they were full of it about everything else. So now, this unusually large number of young people coming of age in the 1960’s was going to create a new and better culture and nation based on the principles of universal brotherhood, peace, personal freedom, individuality, self-expression, and spiritual fulfillment. They were not going to be constrained by the culture of their parents, a culture based on emotional repression, conformity, inequality, materialism, and order through force. When you look at the ideas and lifestyle of the 1960’s counterculture, it was, not surprisingly, the polar opposite of the mainstream culture of 1950’s suburbia.
As protest movements go, this was an odd group of protestors. Generally, protest movements are initiated by people experiencing some form of injustice or oppression. But especially in those early years when the counterculture was largely a movement of college students, these were protests led by the most privileged and prosperous generation in history. By the mid-1960’s, however, as the Vietnam War escalated, the “hippy” movement became almost fully intertwined with the anti-war movement. The realization by all young men that they may be sent to fight and die galvanized people from all ethnic, social, and economic backgrounds. So when people flashed a peace sign, everyone knew what was meant. The Vietnam War, more than anything else, turned what was largely a middle class suburbanite movement into a mass movement that transcended traditional barriers.
Some would argue that many of the people in this so-called counterculture were not in it to change the world. They were just a bunch of spoiled kids looking for a chance to get high, get laid, and run away from any kind of responsibility. In some cases, this may have been true. It’s hard to imagine a counterculture of this magnitude emerging during less prosperous times when people had no choice but to focus on survival. Ironically enough, many of these “hippies” – assuming they survived the 1960’s – “grew up,” got jobs, raised families, and became as “square” and materialistic as their parents had been. If anything, these “yuppies” may have been even more into wealth and success than their parents, indicating that all of their “hippy” talk in the past was just an idealistic fantasy reflecting the foolishness of youth.
Is There a Generation Gap Today?
For parents today who are roughly my age, there is not in general such a wide generation gap between themselves and their kids. Since I was raised middle class in a suburb just as my kids have been, I cannot (honestly) tell them stories about how much I suffered in my youth and of how they “have opportunities that I never had.” At best, I can tell them tragic stories about coping with cassette tapes, landlines, and “Pacman” instead of having an Ipod, smart phone, and a wii. But in spite of these technological blessings, they may actually face a situation a bit more difficult than I (or even my parents) did as a child. It’s not easy to get a suburban home in Orange County, California today, and in our world of constant technological change, the prospects of settling into a stable career for life may be lower than ever before. My kids are growing up in a world very different from the one that I knew, but I don’t see in their generation a burning desire to create a planet free from all of the problems created by old people. Either they don’t think it is possible to solve these problems or they are too busy texting each other to try.
Paul Swendson (author) on March 12, 2018:
Thanks. Yeah, this is an old post. I haven't been writing much here lately because I've been busy with some other stuff. I plan to get back to writing new things in a couple months.
Bonnie Johnson on March 05, 2018:
Since the last comment was four years ago I am out of time on this but I have to say I believe you hit the nail on the head that it was the generation gap that caused all the shit in the 60's. Good article I really enjoyed it.
Paul Swendson (author) on May 15, 2013:
Apparently, you did not read (or at least understand) beyond the first paragraph. I wasn't attributing the counterculture to teenagers lacking common sense. As I said in the first paragraph, the biology of the adolescent brain is the same now as it was in ancient Egypt. A certain amount of teenage rebellion has probably always been there, although it has likely become more intense in the modern world.
To paraphrase what is written above, I was attributing the counterculture to young people becoming disillusioned with their parents and to the world they had created, a world of injustice and war. So when they concluded that their parents had raised them on a flawed fantasy, they rebelled against the suburban culture in which they were raised and against the unjust world that existed outside of the suburban bubble.
So before you start arguing with someone, at least take the time to see what that person is saying. Part of the reason these dialogues are often a waste of time is that I find myself responding to criticism of arguments that I never made in the first place.
Don Draper on May 15, 2013:
In your summery of the 1960s you missed the one massive explosion that is always missed by those who think they know what they are talking about.
You allude to young people not having common sense and yet plenty of young people must have had some form of sense during 1930s to survive through it. Did the human race change so drastically during the period between the 30's to the 60's that their ability to make sound decisions diminished? People in the 60's started to wake up to the injustice of the bullying regimes that run the world with the USA being at the top of that list. So the thing that you so massively missed was fine tuned to keeping people fed on propaganda and undereducated. Like mushrooms, fed on Bull S--- and kept in the dark. So the real truth is you are to blame more than most of us because you are a so called educator who I am afraid is just as brainwashed as the same young people you accuse of having no common sense. The truth is you have to play the game otherwise they crush you because the real game is control at any cost so long as it's them who have control. The priority is social order not law and order, keep control of the masses. Madmen twisting an anti economic system for personal gain. The first rule of advertising over express the positives and ignore the negatives. I really do not believe you are that unintelligent you just choose to ignore the truth because it is in your best interest to do so.