Brown Eyes or Blue: A Social Experiment
A Little Background
If you are unfamiliar with this social experiment done with a third grade classroom in 1968, this is certainly a story worth looking at. Jane Elliot says, that after the Martin Luther King Jr. assassination, she heard newscasters saying "who will hold your people together" and the question inspired her to begin a new lesson at her school. Her students asked her "why they killed a king"?
To begin her lesson, she surveyed her class of all white students and asked them what physical characteristics she could use to divide her class into two groups. One of the students said they could use eye color and Elliot decided to split the class into two groups: brown and blue.
Initially, the class was excited about this project and seemed to look forward to it. Eventually, though, this arbitrary division based on eye color would have a dramatic effect on the way students performed, behaved and felt about themselves.
The blue-eyed students, when told they were superior and offered privileges such as extra recess time, changed their behavior dramatically and their attitudes toward the children with brown eyes. The act of treating students differently was obviously a metaphor for the social decisions made on a larger level.
What Elliot discovered is that initially the blue-eyed folks felt not only alienated but would begin to taunt the students with brown eyes. Performance on tests by the students who were told they were in the superior group excelled while the same test scores plummeted for the group that represented the oppressed. Enthusiasm increased for those who were from the group on top, while the group who was told they were less than equal became withdrawn and depressed. All this was done in a span of less than a day.
Frontline: A Class Divided
- A Class Divided | FRONTLINE | PBS
One of the most requested programs in FRONTLINE's history - the story of a teacher's daring lesson in discrimination.
Are you familiar with the Brown Eyes vs. Blue Eyes experiement?
Elliot's Premises and Presumptions
Elliot's experiment - which was documented in a 1970 film "Eye of the Storm" - certainly had noble intentions and produced some profound observations. It should be expected that if you are treated as if you are expected to succeed, you shall find it easy to achieve your goals. On the opposite side of that, if you are told that you are a failure and no good, you probably will not only find it difficult to accomplish your requires tasks, but may find the effort futile, given that your successes go unrecognized. This is an example of a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Some Images From the Civil Rights Movement (1960s)
The original Brown Eyes v Blue documentary
A Few Words in Defense of White Culture
When discussing race issues in the United States - perhaps the world - it is inevitable that whites will be attributed with most of the blame. While there are certain elements of "white privilege" that are fairly obvious - from the Constitution to popular culture - it is probably unfair to make the claim that all whites are in fact privileged.
The media seemed to portray a division between black and white culture specifically and held that whites were superior. When one looks back at footage of the police response to many of the protests, there doesn't seem to be much compassion to the right of a peaceful group to exercise their Constitutional rights.
Do You Identify With a Racial or Ethnic Background?
If so, what do you
Opening a Dialogue
Whether or not you agree with Elliot's methodology, you will probably agree that her experiment inspires dialogue.
While Elliot certainly is not the first person to speak out about race, the results demonstrated the profound effects the power of suggestion could have. The brown eyes who were told they were inferior exhibited a decline in academic performance, a propensity towards senseless violence and became withdrawn, all in a period of hours of being told that they were seen by the rest of the class as no good.
Elliot eventually had a documentary film - The Eye of the Storm - made about her work and a book called A Class Divided was authored. She has continued her work with employees of correctional facilities, college students and done tours worldwide, demonstrating her lecture to people from all walks of life.
She calls herself "The Bitch" and is adamant and unrelenting about her message and pounds her philosophy into the ears and heads of those willing to listen.
Blue Eyes vs. Brown Eyes
Have you ever felt discriminated against because of your physical appearance?
A Clip From a Modern Workshop by Elliot
Are Elliot's Methods Sound and Fair?
While watching Elliot in some of her interviews or workshop clips, you cannot help but wonder that she must realize that she is an actor and that in order to convey her message, she puts on a charade of sorts. The participants must also realize that when they attend her class, that they are part of the scheduled drama. However, listening to her tone and seeing her physical language and looking at the reactions of the people during her lectures, one can't help but wonder if she is really hurting people's feelings.
Does she attain any sadistic pleasure from her vicious pantomimes? Is it possible that there is psychological damage occurring? There must be some sort of trauma involved, even if it is temporary. I personally felt a bit traumatized watching some of the episodes on video; I wasn't even in the same room.
Other Perspectives on a Complicated Subject
Certainly we have all experienced some sort of prejudice in one form or another. No one is exempt from discrimination. Some people might have felt exclusions because they are not tall enough. You might be embarrassed to visit a night club because your hair isn't blonde enough or your features are not appealing to others who have decided what is good and what is not. The possibilities are actually endless.
People naturally feel comfortable with people who are "like them". Initially, the distinctions may be based upon physical characteristics: skin color, age, perceived ethnicity, gender. Eventually other groups might form based on class, social group, religious preference. People might discover things like intellectual ability, interest and eventually there will be cross cultural relationships forming: an older white Catholic white woman might find herself in a nice conversation with a young, Palestinian man who is an adamant atheist.
A self-fulfilling prophecy
Any positive or negative expectation about circumstances, events, or people that may affect a person's behavior toward them in a manner that causes those expectations to be fulfilled.
Racism is not the major or only form of discrimination. It is probably one of the more overt and in reality senseless forms of bigotry. In the study of her third grade students, many decided to give up and this notion of apathy was adopted within a few hours of being told they were no good. Think about what centuries of the idea of inferiority coupled with the daily onslaught of negative images has done to some.
Much of it could be in perception as well. You take things as you do and create your own reality. If you tell yourself you will succeed you will. If you set yourself up for failure, you have already failed. It's called a self fulfilling prophecy.
Perhaps you have skin that is brown or yellow. Maybe you have a little more weight in your middle section than you want. Maybe you are extremely fit and find yourself the victim of continuous unwanted attention because of your beauty. Maybe you are finding yourself near retirement and confused and alienated by the pace of the modern world. Maybe you are none of those things and just wondering what the fuss is about.
Maybe you worship in a mosque instead of a cathedral or a temple.
Perhaps you are waiting, like many others, for the mother ship to one day return and answer all of your questions and take you home.
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
Questions & Answers
Does this experiment violate any American psychology Association standards or guidelines?
That is a very good question and one that really cannot be provided a simple yes or no answer. When this was done originally, it was not an official experiment done for research purposes per se. The newer ones most possibly are, but it may not be an experiment in the traditional sense.
Guidelines usually imply informed consent as well as the fact that no harm will be done. It is difficult to say whether or not any psychological harm was committed in the current experiments with adults. I am sure there are instances of trauma because if you see some of her videos you will definitely view examples of turmoil where it appears that someone is being harmed.
Many of the experiments through recent history have violated ethical standards: The Stanford Experiment; many of Skinner's shock experiments and of course things like the Tuskegee airman.
I have an article on some of those too: https://soapboxie.com/government/Some-of-the-Most-...
I cannot give you an honest answer, but you bring up a good point. Most universities have IRB (Institutional Review Boards) that approve experiments now. Please see https://www.apa.org/ethics/code/ for the APA Code of Ethics.
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