Irish Potato Famine Morphs Into Food Sustainability
According to Wikipedia, "Ireland's main economic resource is its large fertile pastures." Recognized early on by English colonizers and wealthy, Irish landowners, these absentee landowners raised beef and dairy cows for shipment to England (and elsewhere). Through local landlords, they rented farmland to Irish smallholders for impossibly high rates, often in exchange for labor. If the smallholder couldn't meet the rent, they were pushed off the land. On marginal lands that were left, the Irish croppers grew subsistence crops––first barley, then potatoes––which eventually gave out, resulting in widespread famines.
In 1922 Ireland got its own government and redistributed ownership of the land. Over time it also started thinking in terms of sustainability and carbon footprint. Recognizing that barley and potatoes both depleted Ireland's soils, whereas the country's natural grasses built them, the government started retraining and supporting farmers in developing more sustainable farming practices.
Dublin, Ireland Takes the Country Sustainable
In 2009 Bord Bia, the Irish agricultural trade board headquartered in Dublin, took a survey of the European countries to which they exported food to discover how those countries viewed Ireland's food trade. As expected, they found that Europe saw Ireland as a primarily "green" country supplying them with fairly healthy food.
Bord Bia decided to up the ante. They had heard the predictions that the world would soon run out of food. They also took seriously warnings about climate change, and the need to cut back on carbon dioxide and methane production.
Bord Bia decided to heed both of those warnings by enabling more efficient production of high quality meat and other food and drinks, both for its own populace and for export to Europe, the Middle East, and China. They developed a unique government program called "Origin Green" to make their entire food and drinks industry sustainable - currently the only such program in the world.
What is Food Sustainability?
Sustainability is a method of production that allows for a country's natural resources to be sustained over time, so they are available to generations down the road; so nothing is used up or defaced to the point that it can't replenish itself and continue to exist. The definition has grown to include other things too, like the health and well-being of workers, their families and communities, and efficient financial management, so human life and culture is also sustained.
This is different from subsistence. Sustainability implies an egalitarian sort of thriving of the earth and all of its inhabitants, including humans. Subsistence is just barely making it. And that's how the majority of Ireland lived for hundreds of years.
Humans were divided into classes then, with the peasants and labourers being the lowest classes. They subsisted on foods grown from marginal lands, like barley and potatoes, while the upper classes and foreigners owned most of the land and exported what they produced.
With the advent of Origin Green, Ireland committed to helping farmers make grasslands the country's primary natural resource, with grass-fed meats and dairy products its primary food export. The production of potatoes was downsized in favor of what grows naturally in Ireland.
In addition to creating healthy soil, Ireland's grasses are great for feeding healthy cattle, dairy cows, and sheep, and don't require constant plowing and planting. With sustainable practices and land ownership, Ireland's farmers are now both feeding themselves and expanding their food exports to a growing, hungry world.
This doesn't mean Ireland has completely dumped the potato, since the potato is a staple of their national cuisine. However, Origin Green changed the country's focus to producing healthy, sustainable foods indigenous to Ireland's environment, which the potato is not.
Potatoes are Indigenous to South America
Potatoes came originally from South America. There they were grown high in the Andes Mountains by the Inca people, who cultivated them from wild potatoes 7,000-10,000 years ago. Potatoes are one of the crops the Aztecs experimented with on Machu Picchu, growing them at different heights with different amounts of water and degrees of temperature, to see what would happen. They produced hundreds of different kinds of potatoes.
How did potatoes get from South America to Ireland? In the mid-1500's Spanish conquistadors didn't just take gold and silver from the Incas and other ancient Americans. They took everything of interest they could find, including food. They took chocolate, peanuts, tomatoes, peppers, beans, corn, .. . . and potatoes. They shipped great loads of them from the Americas to Europe, currying favor with royalty, trying to get them to experiment with these exotic foods and maybe even grow them, if only to feed the military. Some European countries did, but the potato was generally spurned. Because it came from under the ground, it was considered food for the lowly.
Ireland was a grower of barley in those days - a grain originally imported from the crescent of Western Asia to North Africa. Barley provided grain for cereals, breads, and especially liquor. Ireland is still known for its Irish whiskey, beer (Guinness), and liqueurs (Bailey's Irish Cream).
But then Ireland had a famine. As often happens when growing imported foods, soils were not adequate to sustain production over the years, and local predators could not control the insects and viruses that attacked the crop. Barley went belly up and people went hungry. What saved the people from starvation was potatoes.
The Growth of the Irish Potato
Potatoes were a savior crop. They liked cold, hard winters and summers with long hours of sunlight, which Ireland had. Barley's destructive insects were uninterested in eating potatoes, and there were lots of different ways potatoes could be cooked.
Potatoes replaced barley in favorite dishes and then new dishes developed especially for potatoes: Potato pies, breads, pancakes, soups, fried and boiled potatoes, apple potato bread ( a dessert), even vodka.
Although potatoes could not be exported easily, some of the products made from them could be - like alcohol and potato chips/crisps. Potatoes quickly grew to be Ireland's new staple crop.
The Irish Potato Famine
In 1845 the same thing happened with potatoes that happened with barley. Because only a few varieties of potato were shipped to Europe from the Andes, there was not enough genetic diversity to keep them healthy, so they succumbed to disease. The Irish Lumpur, a prolific grower used as much for feeding stock as it was for the average Irish cropper's family, was especially vulnerable to a fungus infestation called "late blight," accidentally imported from Europe.
The disease spread quickly through the potato fields of Western Ireland and beyond, resulting in the "Great Irish Famine." Two fifths of the population had become totally dependant on potatoes, mostly the peasant and laborer classes, and suddenly they had nothing to eat.
Absentee landowners ignored their plight, continuing to export beef, dairy, and other food from Ireland to England and beyond, instead of feeding the Irish people. Because only 616 landlords owned 80% of Ireland's land then, local people had no control over what was grown there or who the land fed.
England set up food and public works programs to help for a few months, but farmers were refused those programs if they owned more than 1/4 acre of land. Peasants had to sell whatever land they had left in order to eat or work.
At least two million people emigrated. Over one million people died. The island lost almost a quarter of its population. Some called the famine genocide. I call it a land grab. In either case it made England, as the governing country, look really bad.
In 1879 there was another outbreak of blight, but without the disastrous results of the first one. With the world pressing for reform, England passed the Irish Land Act and then the Wyndham Act in 1903. They also set up a Land Commission to enforce the Acts, which was disbanded in the year 2000, having done its job. Now Ireland has its own government and 87% of the Irish people own their own homes and/or agricultural land.
Potatoes remained Ireland's staple crop for the lower classes, but Ireland started developing varieties of potatoes more resistant to blight (like Rocks and Champion). Over time it became clear that potatoes could not stay a major crop, if Ireland's land and people were to stay healthy.
Meanwhile, the rest of the world was becoming aware of the concept of sustainability, and how crops could thrive more easily when matched with local soil and weather conditions, especially crops and hybrids that were already indigenous.
Potatoes, Weather & Sustainability in Ireland
Eventually the need for agricultural sustainability grew worldwide to the point that it became an insistent prod to action. Analysis showed that Ireland's most abundant, most natural indigenous crop was grass. The country's weather was cool and rainy, when not rainy then misty, and grassland soils were rich, giving cattle, sheep, goats, and dairy cows plenty of healthy food to eat year round. Not much was needed in the way of supplemental grains.
Ireland already had a history of exporting grass-fed meat and dairy products to their neighbors. Now that the world was waking up to how much healthier grass-fed meat was than grain-fed, and the human population was exploding globally, Ireland saw the opportunity for expanding those exports to the rest of the world.
The only question was, how could Ireland avoid the mess it was in before? Would the average farmer have enough to eat, if land were used for exports? For when a country exports goods in lieu of needs at home, it sets itself up for disaster - a slow emptying of the glass that feeds it.
Sustainability was the answer. Sustainable practices require that local farming thrive, both for the physical health of families and the psychological health of communities. So Bord Bia built that concept into their sustainability paradigm and the statistics they used for the Origin Green program. They added an independent verification program to make sure that all sustainability practices were adhered to.
Balancing Local vs. Export Markets
Most of the land in Ireland is now owner-occupied, including the 64% of the country that is agricultural (10.4 million acres), containing over 140,000 farms. Of that, 80% is left as grasslands to grow meat and dairy cows, according to Bord Bia.
On the non-grasslands portions farmers grow barley, potatoes, wheat, apples, cold-season vegetables, and mushrooms (in that order of prevalence). Over 50% of meat and dairy products and 92% of apples (apple juice) are exported, putting Ireland in a wee bit of imbalance. The food and drinks industry comprises almost 10% of Ireland's exports.
To sustain the local economy, farmers are encouraged to diversify, to expand their businesses into non-traditional agricultural activities using existing products. Apples that make juice for exporting, for example, could also make frozen apple pies for home use. Many farming communities have developed organizations to solve local problems and make decisions such as this, and there are numerous local wholesale and retail outlets already existing to help with distribution.
Ireland is learning to balance exports with the production of food for local consumption, even as export markets grow. This includes producing locally some of what Ireland is currently importing, like meat and dairy products not yet made in Ireland.
Increasing the production of indigenous foods for local consumption, decreasing imports, and exporting mainly excess production is what will reduce the danger of future famines, and help the country's economy become more sustainable (and stable) as a whole.
For more information about Ireland's agricultural history:
- Potato Varieties of Historical Interest in Ireland | Dept. of Agriculture
Few plants have had as strong an influence on the destiny of a nation as the potato has on the people of Ireland. Since its introduction to Ireland in the 16th century, the potato has occupied a central place in its diet and culture.
- Revealed: Who Owns Ireland | Independent.ie
A hunger for land is at the soul of the Irish people. Land informs our art, and is often at the centre of our political controversies. Now a new book (Who Owns Britain) reveals, county by county, who actually owns the land.