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Female Feticide: Causes & Effects of Sex-Selective Abortion


Female Feticide and Sex-Selective Abortion

Doctor: It’s a little late. Besides, it has grown too large in size to eliminate.

Woman: Does that mean you can’t do anything to get rid of it?

Doctor: Hmm, maybe a timely pill or an injection can still kill it. The money charged will increase, of course.

Woman: That’s hardly a matter of concern. I just want it done with. (Pause) What will we do with the body, though?

Doctor: Do I need to spell it out to you? (Chuckles.) There’s a graveyard close by. Bury it there. Or maybe you could pack it in a plastic bag and toss it into the river nearby. Nobody will know.

Woman: Sounds like a feasible plan. Thank you.

The above dialogue is not a hypothetical conversation; it was part of a sting operation conducted by a team of journalists in one of the leading hospitals in India. The woman is a mother-to-be. If you were wondering about the repetition of the pronoun ‘it,’ be ready to understand that the subject discussed is the woman’s unborn girl child.

Yes, this is an actual conversation between a pregnant woman and her gynecologist.

While instances of abortion aren’t newsflash in India or any other nation, the cruelty being flaunted in this particular case is, for lack of a better word, horrifying. This exchange was captured and aired by a television programme called Satyamev Jayate which attempts to throw light on the brutal underbelly of India's supposedly sophisticated society.

What Is Female Feticide?

Female feticide is the selective abortion/elimination of the female child, done deliberately by the mother, after the detection of the child’s gender through medical tests. This is usually done under familial pressure from the husband or the in-laws or even the woman’s parents.

In places where cultural norms value male over female children (in India, China, Pakistan, the Caucasus, and Southeast Europe, for example), elective abortions of female fetuses are common. Like many societies around the world, India is patriarchal. A set hierarchy prevails in all tiers of its social order, and a fanatic preference for male children is especially common in India. From the ancient scriptures, one finds instances where men are glowingly praised as the key to continuing the family lineage, while females are forced to undergo multiple pregnancies and (or) abortions until they become breeding machines that produce male offspring.

Sadly, a majority of female feticide cases involve the enthusiastic participation of women, both old and young.

To add fuel to the fire, the unethical sex determination and selective abortion of female infants has become a booming ($224 million US) industry. Money has become a dangerous incentive for this transgression.

Why Abort Female Fetuses?

Every unethical act has some lame age-old reasoning behind it which its staunch supporters use as justification. The cause of female feticide lies within the cultural norms as well as the socio-economic policies of the country where the practice prevails.

The most infected (I use the adjective "infected" because it precisely depicts the malady) are the South Asian countries like China, India, Vietnam, and Korea, but this social evil has mushroomed to western nations like the US and Canada. Immigration has brought cultural preferences for female feticide across the pond.

What is the rationale, one may wonder? Surprisingly, the reasons for killing female fetuses aren’t quite as diverse as one may expect.

  • "Male Children are a Better Investment." The main reason is the idea that the male offspring will better support the family. Since sons are seen as the main source of income, even though today, women have many career options, the common misconception still remains that it is the male who will help run the house and look after his parents, while women are viewed as being like cargo, something to be shipped off to another household.
  • "Female Children Are a Gamble." In India, the age-old dowry system puts a damper on the spirits of those who are blessed with a girl child. When a girl is born, the parents begin to calculate the expense of her future marriage, the lump sum that will be paid to the future groom's family. They worry that currency may depreciate and inflation may skyrocket. Because of this, the birth of a girl is seen as a tragedy waiting to happen.
  • Women Don't Have Status in Society. As a result of institutional and cultural sexism, female children and adults have less power, status, rights, and money. Even as adults, it's harder for females to take care of or make decisions for themselves. Centuries of repression have made inferiority second nature to most women who have been taught the role of the meek, submissive, docile wife who works relentlessly to cater to the whims of her husband. Female feticide often happens with the explicit consent of the mother. Even the mothers-to-be agree to this misdeed out of an inherited cultural bias and a sense of duty to the family.
  • Foul Medical Ethics. With the legalization of abortion in India, illegal sex determination and termination of pregnancies have become everyday realities. Professionals in the medical field are only too glad to help parents realize their dream of a healthy baby boy. Female feticide is openly discussed in the medical profession and many pin boards outside clinics have advertisements for abortion that read, "Pay Rs. 500 [$10 US] today to save the expense of Rs. 500 000 [$10,000 US] in the future." The cost of an abortion is nothing compared to the expense of having a child, especially a girl.
  • Industrial Growth. Industrialization of the health sector has further established the practice of sex-selective abortion. With the advent of CVS, amniocentesis, and ultrasound, sex determination of the fetus has become much easier. These manufacturers of high-tech equipment and gadgets benefit from the preference for male children. Many hospitals are known to sign long-term contracts with the firms involved in the production of these types of machines. Often, a healthy percentage of the profit is shared with the hospital, and both parties enjoy the fruits of rewarding a death sentence.

A Note on the Accuracy of Sex-Selective Abortions

As opposed to CVS and amniocentesis, ultrasound technology is cheaper and within easy reach of the lower economic strata of society. It is also easily accessible in a hospital/clinic nearby with mediocre credentials. Unfortunately, the accuracy of the ultrasound is not 100% until the fetus is twenty weeks old. Consequently, the children aborted by those enthusiastic parents may just be the little prince they were hoping for.

The Long-Term Consequences of Aborting Female Fetuses

As Newton’s Third Law of Motion states, "For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction." The after-effects of the genocide of female feticide are far-reaching. Blinded by their desire for male children, the majority of parents are ignorant of the disaster they unwittingly invite by indulging in female feticide.

  • Skewed Sex Ratio: In India, the number of girls is declining with each passing decade. From 962 and 945 girls for every 1000 boys in the years 1981 and 1991 respectively, the ratio plummeted to a low of 914 girls born for 1000 boys in 2011. In China, the ratio is an alarming 100 girls for 118 boys (or 848 girls for 1000 boys). These are just two examples of nations trapped in vicious abortion cycles, but there are many other countries struggling with skewed sex ratios, as well. See below for more statistics from other countries.
  • Female/Women Trafficking: The steep decline in the number of girls makes them scarce for the teaming number of males eligible for marriage. As a result, illegal trafficking of women has become commonplace in many regions. Women, often young girls who’ve just crossed the threshold of puberty, are compelled to marry. Many young girls are kidnapped from their parents and sold to the highest bidder. Child marriages and pregnancies have a devastating consequence. When a region participates in the trade of its female population, the present and future psychological cost is alarming.
  • Increase in Rape and Assault: Once women become an endangered species, the instances of rape, assault, and violence become widespread. When there are fewer available females, the surviving ones will be faced with the reality of handling a society driven by a testosterone high. The legal system may offer protection and, as is the situation today, many crimes may not ever surface for fear of isolation, humiliation, and punishment on the girl’s part.
  • Population Decline: With no mothers to bear children (male or female), there will be fewer births, leading to a decline in population. Though population control is currently the goal of many nations like China and India, a total wipeout of one sex is not the way to achieve this target.

Is an Imbalance in the Number of Females Born a Real Problem?

Yes, indeed. When calculated for the entire population, the widespread disparity is more visible and alarming and may prove critical for the country’s development in political, economic, and emotional spheres. The sex ratios of other countries are listed below:

  • Vietnam: 892 females /1000 males
  • South Korea: 934 females /1000 males
  • USA: 962 females /1000 males
  • Canada: 943 females /1000 males
  • UK: 952 females /1000 males
  • Sri Lanka: 961 females /1000 males
Son Preference

Son Preference

World Sex Ratio

World Sex Ratio

Prevention and Solution

Do the facts listed above truly spell disaster for the future of women? Maybe not. The issues of female infanticide, female feticide, and selective sex abortion have gained global attention, and many international and national lawmaking bodies have come forward to stop this cruel practice. Of the numerous steps taken to curb the matter, the prominent ones are:

  • Cancellation/permanent termination of the doctor’s license who aborts a fetus simply because of its gender.
  • Heavy penalty imposed on companies like GE that specialize in marketing medical equipment used for illegal sex determination and abortion in unlicensed clinics and hospitals.
  • High fines and judicial action against parents who knowingly try to kill their unborn baby.
  • Widespread campaigns and seminars for young adults and potential parents to enlighten them about the ill effects of female feticide.

Ignorance is one of the major causes for selective sex abortion cases. Spreading awareness can go a long way in saving our future sisters, mothers, girlfriends and wives.

A cohesive and concerted effort by everyone can prove to be the requisite baby step in the right direction. We might not support the notion of women rising above men, becoming the dominant sex, or conquering the world, but the basic humane consideration to let an innocent child live and see the world she was conceived to grow in is not too much to ask. Let’s not be murderers of our own flesh and blood.

More to Read

This content reflects the personal opinions of the author. It is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and should not be substituted for impartial fact or advice in legal, political, or personal matters.

© 2012 Arati Nair


Dr. Abhilasha Gautam on May 24, 2019:

Parents in the present society are very much insecure for the security of their female child. Government should work upon making strict laws for the security of females. When society will be more secure for the security of females it will be more ready to welcome her.

Amrapali jawle on May 23, 2019:

We want a mother,we want a sister,but no one wants a daughter.daughter is not a lagech for the society we should avoid the female foticide for our next generation and for our future too

Monali Kakade on May 23, 2019:

Girls are playing different role very effectively. She is important part of nature.

AMK Gynae from Block 721 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 8, #01-2807, Singapore 560721 on March 12, 2019:

all genders should ALWAYS be equal.

Reena on December 27, 2017:

This is just another reason why girls should take control and be the dominant sex in Indian society because all the problems arising in India is due to the patriarchal society there. Look at Western Europe at all the Scandinavian countries where women r in control and how green and liberal they r, where poverty. human trafficking, human rights, etc. is not an issue. In order for Indian society to become better, women rising above men is compulsory.

Rishika on February 15, 2017:

Female infanticide has adversely affected Indian society. The biggest and most easily measurable effect is the low female-to-male ratios. The practice of killing the girl child is a cruel and abominable act that must be stopped. The only way for that is to spread awareness and make people realize the consequences of not saving their daughter.

Source: https://www.youthkiawaaz.com/2010/12/female-infant...

Ashish Singh from Rajasthan, India on December 23, 2016:

Hi, another comprehensive article on female foeticide in Rajasthan: http://www.rajras.in/index.php/female-foeticide-in...

anju on September 22, 2016:

i want summary on female foreticide plzz

viren on September 06, 2016:

why we have to stop female foeticite ?

I try to make a video which is on it.

i hope that you like it.


Rutu on May 27, 2016:

Save the life of girl child

simran on May 24, 2016:

why boy.............................................................??????..................................................why not a girl...........???????????????????????????????

Sumit kumar on May 12, 2016:

We can't imagine a society without female or a girl child

prernaa saha on April 15, 2016:

Female foeticide is really the worst form of gender violence against women where a girl not even have the right to born.shame on those people who did these crime.

prernaa saha on March 24, 2016:

proud to be a girl...

CRISTY on February 08, 2016:

I thank god who has created me as a girl

I love u dad and mom

Md Rashid on January 17, 2016:

its nice to read on this site

jagjeet singh Mehta on October 01, 2015:

I think female feticide is a evil which is growing very fast because people think girl child is a Gamble and their is no need of her and even she doesn't provide any investment and relaxation to her family..... Even she is a burden on family



riya kaur on August 24, 2015:

wow..,yyy 2 kill a girl thn hw 2 find a bride 4 a boy

shince on August 15, 2015:


In less than a decade from now, the diminishing sex ratio is going to cause total chaos in our social and economic life. By then, the decreasing child sex ratio of the first decade of the third millennium will be the horrifyingly skewed youth sex ratio of the third decade. All type of anti-social trends like the selling of women as goods and widespread violence against women will destroy our family life, social life and economic progress which are now held in high esteem by the world community.

Anmol sandhu on August 06, 2015:

Nice paragraph

ismat jahan on July 11, 2015:

a girl is a neccesary oorgan of the world like a working body needs a heart to stay alive similarly a world needs girls to continue......................


rosy on July 08, 2015:

hi m tottaly agree to you hub because the condition ff women become so pathtic these days n m really disappoint by watching all this autoracy

gagandip bansal on June 28, 2015:

its a gud page about support on women and its power etc

plz save girls

poornima chaudhary on May 24, 2015:

thanx hub fr supporting women

Pooja Jindal on May 05, 2015:

Nicely written. According to me the root cause of female foeticide and many other crimes against women is our marriage rule according to which a woman is supposed to leave her home/parents and stay with her husband in her in-laws home after marriage OR the rule of donating a girl child by her father to her husband at the time of marriage (Kanyadaan). For elaboration please visit https://jindalsblog.wordpress.com/2013/01/01/femal...

So, I think we should have law such that the rule should be illegal

aastha on March 09, 2015:

I think the root for all this lies in the marriage tradition that we follow in India. Instead of girls being sent to bridegrooms home why can't we have boys shift to the brides home. This will solve most of the problems. Then parents won't have to feel depressed when a girl as she will be there with them to support them for lifelong, also the abuse from in laws against women will decrease and men will also start to respect women as they don't get pampered by his own parents. This should be made compulsory and if found that a girl is brought into a guys family then there should be heavy penalty.

rohan pinge on February 26, 2015:

PLease save the girl and fight against female foeticide

kiran brar on February 19, 2015:

if u want take respect firstly u shoud be give the respect to other so give respect to girls and other

mr sidhu on February 19, 2015:

Plzzzz save the girls. ......

If you die the girl than how you find bride for our boy

ashish on February 12, 2015:

ooooooooooooooohhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnoooooooooooooooooooooooo

donoma on February 09, 2015:

It's fantastic my friend

sarita sharoha on January 14, 2015:

I only wanted to say that woman's are not like a animals they also a human being

and anyone who kill a baby girl is not a human they have no any heart

and they are not god who take anybody life

they have no rights to kill anyone

Tania Sarah on January 11, 2015:

this is horrifiying

shukri on December 28, 2014:

Save womens

they give life

parul on December 24, 2014:

stop foeticide

rupinder randhawa on December 02, 2014:

As we know that female foeticide is increasing day by day which is not good for our country so stop killing girl child it really hurts!!!!

anoushka on November 29, 2014:

women carry the whole world with her respect them

shefali goenka on November 05, 2014:

Actually how can the people kill the girls in womb! According to me People who kill the girls in the womb are not human! Human are those who knows humanity!

kamble dhiraj on November 01, 2014:

We are because of a one women ;

We like mother, sister, wife, girl friend so the girl child why not??

We always says " every successful men is because of a women"

So we give respect to them and protect this crime....

priya verma on October 09, 2014:

girls are very important for world .girls can chammge the whole world .respecet the girls from heart.

Ahmad Farid Habibyar on September 19, 2014:

Dear friends, I am Muslim and I know offspring whether is girl or boy is a gift from God (Allah) given to us, being human its really a bad practice to do sex selective abortion, I am strongly against this and I want all those who are involved directly or indirectly in this offense must know that this is an action against humanity. I know that female can be a mother, sister, wife and a good friend, so lets fight against this ignorant practice and save humanity.

sweetysadaf on September 11, 2014:

Well written hub.I got a lot of information about it

shiksha jadhav on August 31, 2014:

save the girl child.....

shekar on August 26, 2014:

we should make more awareness through presentations.

this can be done through youth.students

lokesh kumar on August 21, 2014:

Save the girl child please

Saloni Christian on August 04, 2014:

Thank you man! I'll surely get an A in my project and the thinking is just perfect :)

manpreet on July 25, 2014:

very nice views and very touching presentation.

parvez khalsa on July 25, 2014:

Nice views about kudian

shabadjot sharma on July 11, 2014:

female foeticide is a crime we should protest against it.

riya jain on June 10, 2014:

Very useful information

harsimran kaur on June 08, 2014:

These r awesome thoughts about females ...fabulous



varnika on May 21, 2014:

vry well written..!! keep it upp..:)

bhawna on May 04, 2014:

I m really shattered to know that even in 21st century,the era when women had reached their acme concerning any field, there are such orthodox mentality people....this really accentuate the wretched condition of women in the world.

sim_uk on April 09, 2014:

Good piece of work. A true insight of what happens in countries like India which is hugely patriarchal in nature. My heart breaks by knowing that the doctors, the ones who are known to save lives are the ones sometimes provocating the family. And the police are taking no good action against it. Also, i see a lot of loopholes in the legislative actions and i feel it will take may more years to overcome this huge issue.

Pharme464 on April 03, 2014:

I will immediately grab your rss feed as I can not find your email subscription link or enewsletter service. Do you've any? Please let me know in order that I could subscribe. Thanks. cbekkfb

rethym g....... on February 27, 2014:

Its really painfull to see female foeticide tody in this modern era...

These articles are really heart touching ...

Everyone kill me


I m

Girl chid

Plz save me ........

Even I hv right to live like every men has

????????????????????? on February 07, 2014:

Girls are so important girls bright the world but still struggle to see the light

shivangi on January 21, 2014:

thanxxxxxxxxxxxx for this.......


it's a heartning article..


preetpalsinghmalli on January 19, 2014:

its really really very bad

farhin naaz on January 03, 2014:

please read my comment above this will be really helpful for the society and female haters and plzz give me the response of my cmnt. am not a socialist at all by i wanna to bring changes in our society by heart and being a women its my duty.

farhin naaz on January 03, 2014:

well, women are the important organ of any society, if we are unable to give them birth then its very shameful for our religion or culture.

my question is what can not be done by the women she can be a top class leader, a eng., a doctor ,a lawyer ,a brave police women ,a fighter ,a defense warrior ,she can be an air guardian or a land warrior ,a water warrior and a great socialist a women can do all this things if a women herself came to know about the importance of feminity a women can compete with men if we increase the proportion of female child this can all be done if we take care the health and education of women ,if we want to create gender equality we must kill all this social evils like Dowry system or putting the surname of a male to female or whatever and whatever .

this is the time to change our way of thinking if we do this all, then society will not be male dominated our society will be equally annexed


farhin naaz on January 03, 2014:


sushila on December 10, 2013:

Its a crime. We girls have right to live our life.

shivangi chauhan on December 07, 2013:

It's truly informative hub..........

Vry nice job...........

Meera on November 27, 2013:

save the life of women , get a place in heaven.......

today's woman on November 22, 2013:

very sad to know this!!!!!!!

minnu kumari on November 17, 2013:

i got lots of information through this passage, thank you very much.

Arati Nair (author) from Scottsdale on October 24, 2013:

A mass awareness of such social evils needs to be done. Thank you all for reading, sharing and commenting.

Sandhya.. on October 24, 2013:

Sorry.. i meant it is heart touching ...female foeticide is a the dirtiest evil of our society...it is really very bad..

Sandhya on October 24, 2013:

A very informative and heartening article...thank u soooo much..

shruti on October 24, 2013:

it is 2............................pleasurable. thanks

sekhon jot on October 09, 2013:

There is not many words that can be said.........its really nyc :)

jot on October 09, 2013:

women can change the world

sukhbir on October 04, 2013:

I am really touched and moved to tears having read all this.Well written and well crafted.thanks a lot!

shruti on September 30, 2013:

if u want 2 change the world ; first change yourself

Shifa Haider on September 30, 2013:

womens can change the world

shreya singh on September 30, 2013:

if you respect the women ; you r respected by whole world

jyotsna chauhan on July 12, 2013:

its interesting i seriouslygot so much inspired with it and also got so much emotionally attched with it

Yves on July 06, 2013:

A well done article. The push to influence women to abort in India and China is dreadful, and to have more men than women in any nation is anything but good. If I may also add, the United States performs 1.2 million abortions per year. Approximately 6,200 are due to incest or rape. In all honesty, the fact that we don't discriminate much in this country between getting rid of boy or girl babies is of little consolation to me.

India has about 1.2 billion people. China has over 1.3 billion. The United States has over 316 million. The US performs about 23 abortions per 1000 women. China does 26.1 per 1000 women. From what I could find, India performs about 6.5 million abortions per year, but their population is much higher than ours.

The most important thing is to make abortions safe and fewer. Even former President Clinton agreed with this statement. The argument that "It's my body" doesn't really fly in my mind. According to the medical profession, the fetus is a separate entity. We are talking about two bodies, not one. Most abortions in the U.S. are also performed for the sake of convenience, as in India, though India's abortions are perpetrated mostly on the female fetus, as you have so well written.

My apologies for the long comment. I got off on a tangent a little bit. My goal was to make some comparisons. Thank you for writing this very informative hub.

PennyCarey from Felton on June 21, 2013:

This is an extremely interesting and educational hub. I enjoyed learning something new today. Although, the topic of discussion is more than a little disturbing and sad... Thanks for sharing your knowledge and information!

idigwebsites from United States on June 06, 2013:

Unspeakable horror...

I can't believe that some women in different societies permit this. So sad. If only I could throw these long-term consequences into these men's faces. They see women as of no value. Well written hub.

anonymous on May 25, 2013:

i agree with this all ...

save the girl child and save the planet


kill the girl child and destroy the planet with only dominance of the men

dravina on May 10, 2013:

This was very helpful and being informative to me. I was really shocked when I saw the sex ratio between girls and boys in India. This is really a very sad condition.

Joker on March 08, 2013:

Im one of the many useless guy who does nothing seeing killing of female foeticide... i wonder what would be the pain undergone by the small kid who doesn't even know to cal her mama... is that painful or if the kid as a soul and it realizes that her own parents killed her would that make her rest in peace?

vaishnavi on March 06, 2013:

really helpful

roop on January 17, 2013:

stop! this female foaticide

Chewy Mommy on November 14, 2012:

This is really sad. I can't even imagine aborting a baby because of the gender of the child. The mother in the initial conversation was so cold and acted as if she was taking out the trash.

shivani dubb on September 27, 2012:

clearly written each and everything.the conversation is quite depressive.i learned about the sex ratio in india and much more.thanx......SAVE THE CUTE AND SWEET GIRLCHILD.

isha on September 10, 2012:

thank you so much! this really helped... i am preparing a speech on 'save the girl child' for a symposium which is to be held in my school... i have written most of it myself but i needed some help with the consequences.

it's a very well written hub! continue writing on similar topics! i am sure other topics will be appreciated as much as this one has been! thanks!

Madeleine Salin from Finland on July 29, 2012:

That conversation in the beginning of the hub is horrible. I can't believe it is this common with female feticide. This is a very well written hub. Voted up and shared!

shalini sharan from Delhi on July 29, 2012:

this is one of the most important topics you have covered, indeed such brutality eists when females are killed just for the gender

sharing it

Jessee R from Gurgaon, India on July 29, 2012:

This is the hub of the day for me.... What an irony we face here in our cultures where on one hand we talk of holiness and attainment of Nirvana... and the divinity if morality while on the other hand... we disrespect the most beautiful creations of our heavenly father..

I have seen things like this... I have heard people proudly tell tales to others of their shrewd inhuman behavior... and it pains me to be living in such a Hippocratic society...

Where is the human rationale....

Well leaving my thoughts behind..., i must say.. that you have a brilliant hub here Arati...

Female Feticide... is a ungodly sin...and you have laid out the scientific and cultural implications in an excellent manner

Great hub

Ashish Joshi from India on June 25, 2012:

Loved this one...the way you've approached the issue!

Keep it up.

'up' and 'useful' and'awesome' and shared as well.

Teresa Coppens from Ontario, Canada on June 23, 2012:

Wonderfully written hub. It horrifies me to realize how much women are devalued in tis world. Thanks for enlightening us all'!

shalini sharan from Delhi on June 21, 2012:

the hub touched my heart especially a the start. hard to believe how a mother can be so brutal

indeed it is time to eliminate female feticide

Karla Iverson from Oregon on June 19, 2012:

An excellent hub. I've been reading more and more about this. It's sad to see when women can finally earn the money that the families expect for their old age. It would be great if the dowries could be eliminated. Of course, if the women disappear, maybe the men will be expected in the future to PAY the dowries instead of receiving them.

Arati Nair (author) from Scottsdale on June 17, 2012:

Thank you, Funom for taking the time to read my hub.

Dr Funom Makama from Europe on June 15, 2012:

Well written my friend..

Arati Nair (author) from Scottsdale on May 30, 2012:

Thank you, Rosemay50 for reading and commenting.

It is only when a good portion of the crowd speaks up that such abhorrent practices can be curbed. It was a T.V. programme that inspired me to write this hub. I can only hope that this, in turn, will serve as an eye-opener for many.

Your feedaback, as always, is highly appreciated.

Rosemary Sadler from Hawkes Bay - NewZealand on May 30, 2012:

It is upsetting to me that women are forced to abort their child simply because it is female. I have never understood this; there are simpler ways to control the population. But to have a daughter aborted just to boost a male’s ego is totally abhorrent. Women are every bit as capable as men in today’s world. Woman in these countries are now beginning to realise that they can be independent and they can learn and play important roles in society.

A very well written hub on an important topic.

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