Don't Drink the Kool-Aid !!! The Power of Groupthink

The Power of Groupthink

Groupthink is a phenomenon discovered by Irving L. Janis. Groups at times don’t gather enough information to make an informed choice. In doing so alternative choices are not recognized. If they took the time to explore different viewpoints, they may have come out with better answers, avoiding poor results and ending up with a more well-rounded resolution. Ways in which groupthink can happen are through strong outside influences to make a good choice, group-cohesiveness or pressure towards group uniformity, and the presence of a tough, resilient leader. Another part of groupthink that people get caught up in, is that in a group the suggestion of an alternative solution can appear as disloyalty, which is another reason people don’t speak up (Fiske, 2014).

Space Shuttle Challenger


The Challenger Disaster

The reason the space shuttle Challenger disaster in 1986 is mentioned as an example of groupthink, is because it was shown that the key engineers on the project had noticed structural damage in the components months ago but did not say anything. They felt it was insignificant, and there would a delay in the project and media backlash. Ultimately this poor decision cost many people their lives. One would think, how could this have happened? What powerful phenomena is taking place that seemingly brilliant rocket scientists were unable to speak up. Groupthink happens more than one thinks. The power of group decisions and to belong to a group is a very desirable factor. There are ways in which to avoid groupthink, so incidents like the Challenger disaster are avoided and hopefully never happen again.

I would like to clarify, while the media has had its’ issues in the past, i.e. paparazzi attempting to get the perfect shot of Princess Diana resulting in a horrific car crash, it was not the case here. With respect to the Challenger disaster, the issue itself was not actually the fear of the media, the issue was a result of groupthink within the NASA organization.

There was a breakdown in communication between NASA engineers and NASA management team. There was also a noted fear, within the NASA culture, against speaking up about problems as the focus. NASA administration wanted to focus towards being ‘operational’ as opposed to ‘developmental’. It would have been more pertinent if they structured each mission as though it was the first one. The NASA culture also showed a significant overestimation of power, lack of vulnerability, close mindedness and pressure towards uniformity. The members of the management team did not receive accurate information regarding defaults and made a decision to launch without complete knowledge of all internal issues (Ferraris & Carveth, 2003). It’s a shame to say, but the fear appeared to exist more within the organization itself.

Jonestown Aftermath


Jim Jones and The Peoples Temple: Jonestown

Another infamous example of groupthink is that of Jonestown. Cults are often very susceptible to groupthink in getting people to conform. In the beginning the group was presented as somewhat of a utopia for many, but later many realized it was nothing but a work camp, working long hours in the heat, far away from their families in Guyana. People were scared and if anyone disagreed against the doctrine this could mean trouble.

The so called mass suicide that took place was a product of being forced against their will to drink poisonous punch. Those that were not forced were victims of groupthink. There were over 900 people that died that day including children. Congressman Ryan came in good faith to find out what was happening upon hearing negative reports. Film crew members, concerned family and his adviser were also travelling with him at the time.

They were attacked at the airport when they tried to leave with the few members that were able to speak up about wanting to get away from Jonestown. Jim Jones had the congressman killed, and tricked everyone into drinking the punch by saying there was going to be an attack on Jonestown when the it got back to the U.S about what had happened to Congressman, Leo Ryan. Jim Jones had convinced them that suicide was the only option.

The phenomenon that took place in Jonestown with this group is unique in that they went from being individuals in the world, followed by group polarization, to being fully obedient. As they were led out of the United States deep into the isolated jungle, their mind frame shifted from conformity where they thought they were making these choices of their own free will to total obedience. Research showed that Jim Jones had such authoritative control of them by the end with the lack of supplies, long work hours, lack of food and sleep; obedience had become all-consuming.

Apparently towards the end a woman was found with a message written on her arm “Jim Jones is the only one” (Cahill, 1979). While there were certainly people who had not 'drunk the Kool -Aid', so to speak, there were plenty who had. They felt the all-consuming effects of obedience, comforted by absolute power. This situation was truly unique in that people were brainwashed in a social psychological continuum. There were phases of conformity, group polarization, group think, and obedience. Some people wanted out, while others accepted the ‘beauty of dying’. There was a survivor that was interviewed later who had been away from the camp during the final moments and missed the whole thing. He was quoted as saying.

“If I had been there, I would have been the first one to stand in that line and take that poison and I would have been proud to take it. The thing I’m sad about is this: that I missed the ending” (Osherow, 1988, p. 89).


Negative Groupthink Consequences of Jonestown

The leader Jim Jones, induced guilt feelings in the People’s Temple members. This guilt was a means of control. The members were also ordered to give up family member ties as well as anything that was of personal interest to them before joining the group.

At this point they took off towards their utopia in Guyana. They spent hours listening to Jim Jones doctrine on the loud speakers, hours working in the sun, and because the bunks were divided by gender, married couples were separated.

Negative consequences that resulted from Jonestown, is people were afraid to speak out against their leader for fear of what would happen once they realized they were trapped (Everyday Citizen, n.d.).


How to Avoid Groupthink

Encourage ideas to be challenged without reprisal (Avoiding Groupthink, n.d.). In this particular case, when joining a new group that may have different ideologies it is important to note whether individuals are encouraged to speak out and voice their concerns on different topics during meetings. If this behavior is looked down upon negatively, this could be signs of groupthink, or in the case of The Peoples’ Temple, a sign of a cult. One of the ways to avoid poor decisions, is to always be on the lookout for signs of groupthink, and deal with them as soon as possible (Avoiding Groupthink, n.d.).

Always examine your risk in any decision you make when part of a group. (Avoiding Groupthink, n.d.). Look at your options as to what the group is asking you to give up and what sort of things you may be gaining, Are these beneficial, are basic human rights being impinged upon? If you notice the risk are high, re-examine and make sure you take steps to fully validate any decision before it is ratified (Avoiding Groupthink, n.d.).

News Reports of Mass Suicide in Jonestown

“We are not supposed to all be the same, feel the same, think the same, and believe the same. The key to continued expansion of our Universe lies in diversity, not in conformity and coercion. Conventionality is the death of creation.”

— Anthon St. Maarten

References (n.d.). Retrieved from Jonestown Massacre:

Avoiding Groupthink. (n.d.). Retrieved from Mindtools:

Everyday Citizen. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Ferraris, C., & Carveth, R. (2003). NASA and the Columbia Disaster: Decision-making by Groupthink? Association for Business Communication Annual Convention (pp. 1-13). Association for Business Communication.

Fiske, S. T. (2014). Social beings: Core motives in social psychology. (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Osherow, N. (1988). Making sense of the nonsensical: An analysis of Jonestown. Readings about the social animal, 68-89.

Comments 8 comments

Lisa HW profile image

Lisa HW 23 months ago from Massachusetts

There is (or used to be fairly recently) a cute (intended to be funny) commercial (and I don't even recall the product/service, which probably doesn't say much for those who made the commercial, I suppose :/); but there's a voice that says something like, "Like drama? Don't be a yes-man". They show a guy at a work meeting who says something like, "That's a stupid idea." Then they show the same guy walking on the sidewalk with what looks like a box of his office belongings. In other words, like he was booted out for speaking up about what he thought was a "stupid" idea.

In real life a little more diplomacy in choice of words would, of course, been called for; but institutions, agencies, organizations, families, and any number of other groups can far too often have agendas of their own that have nothing to do with actually achieving excellence or protecting anyone or anything other than whatever it is in the interest of whoever it is that doesn't want someone questioning them.

And then, of course, you've got the immature-minded or otherwise inexperienced people who think nothing bad is going to happen and that anyone who recognizes that it may is "being a worrying old lady" or "being paranoid"

I hate to use the cliché, "good Hub", but good Hub and good subject. I haven't looked at your others Hubs, so I don't know what else you write about; but I think this subject and related/spin-off subjects would make good areas for either expanding on or addressing from different angles.

Social Minds profile image

Social Minds 23 months ago from Southern California Author

Thanks Lisa. I feel like I need to find that commercial! Yes, I do believe voicing your opinion when it's not the popular opinion can be a little tricky within the confines of an organization. You are right, it requires diplomacy as well as strength of mind. Many don't have this, which is why it's so easy to get caught up in the power of groupthink. I'm sure going against the grain has cost many a person their job. It's unfortunate but true. Thanks for reading and commenting!

Lisa HW profile image

Lisa HW 23 months ago from Massachusetts

What may make things worse is when some horror does happen as a result of someone thinking a more conscientious, experienced, person was "paranoid"; cowards, sleazes, and other weaklings may dig in their heels and either say something else/someone else was to blame; or else just still say whatever was a problem wasn't really the problem. After all, the only thing that's worse than being that "commercial guy with his box of office stuff" (because he said an idea was stupid) is often being the person, or among the people, who are to blame for the "horror" that's already happened). Accidents can happen, but so many things don't have to happen and do - only because of things like self-interest (corporate or individual) or just plain out-of-control ego.

Social Minds profile image

Social Minds 23 months ago from Southern California Author

True, very true Lisa!

DJ Anderson 23 months ago

Donna you have given us another brilliant hub to give us much to think about.

I have often wondered how someone could be duped into taking on beliefs and actions that are against their very being. I knew there

was something that make those religious cults drink the proverbial

Kool-Aid. It is interesting to learn that there is a name for this, other than dumb-ass. It is Groupthink and it does explain a lot.

Here is wishing you and yours a very Happy Thanksgiving to you and your family.


Social Minds profile image

Social Minds 23 months ago from Southern California Author

Well said DJ, well said! Thank you and Happy Thanksgiving.

MsDora profile image

MsDora 23 months ago from The Caribbean

I think that isolation from non-group members is the beginning of disaster--as is obvious in the Jim Jones story. You give very wise counsel: "make sure you take steps to fully validate any decision before it is ratified. Good presentation!

Social Minds profile image

Social Minds 23 months ago from Southern California Author

Yes the situation with Jim Jones was quite radical in nature and he was certainly skilled in manipulation tactics! As always, thanks for stopping by MsDora!

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