What is Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder and What Can we do About it?

European Honey Bee


What's Happening to the Honey Bees?

The European Honey Bee is not a native of North America, but when the Europeans came to this continent, the Honey Bee was not far behind. There is a written record of Honey Bees being shipped to Jamestown in 1621. The bees were first brought here to make honey for the settlers, but soon after their arrival in the New World, a wild population was established, it thrived for most of the history of this country. Over time the bees' ability to pollinate crops became even more important than their ability to make honey.

Throughout most of US history, farmers have relied on wild bees, including feral honey bees and native bees, for pollination. But in the last few decades, modern, industrial farming has come to depend heavily upon beekeepers to provide bees for pollination of a large variety of crops, often trucking them hundreds or thousands of miles to do the job. It's not hard to imagine that this doesn't provide ideal living conditions for the bees.

Often cited as the epitome of managed-bee dependent crops, is the California almond crop. Almond trees have a very short bloom period, and they all tend to bloom at the same time, a time when wild bees are not normally active. Most of the managed honey bees in the entire country are brought to California in the early spring to pollinate almond trees.

Between 1972 and 2006 the wild honey bee declined to the point where they are now virtually nonexistent. The decimation of the wild honey bee population is generally blamed on two different species of mites; the Tracheal mite and the Varroa mite.

With the disappearance of the wild honey bee, farmers became even more dependent on captive honey bees for pollination. But those bee populations too, have been declining for decades. Honey bees were in trouble even before 2006, that was when beekeepers began to report an unusual phenomenon. Worker bees would leave the colony to forage and never return, leaving the queen and the young behind to die. No dead worker bees were found at the nest sites, they simply disappeared. Some beekeepers have lost as many as 80% of their hives. This has come to be know as Colony Collapse Disorder.

It seems as though solving the problem of Colony Collapse Disorder is going to be very difficult unless a specific cause can be found. Many experts feel that it is likely a combination of factors, rather than one single cause.

The USDA has formed a CCD Steering Committee. They have developed an action plan comprised of these four components:

  • Survey and Data Collection
  • Analysis of Samples
  • Hypothesis-Driven Research
  • Mitigative and Preventative Measures which include:
    Improving bee habitat
    Maintaining pathogen
    resistant bees
    Improving regulatory protections

2013 - An Extremely Bad Year for Bees

Monsanto and the Honey Bee - Conspiracy Theory or the Future?

In September of 2011, giant, biotech corporation, Monsanto bought a small company called Beeologics. It had been working on an anti-viral medication for bees called Remebee® it was designed to prevent infection by the ‘Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus,’ which is suspected to be a factor in CCD (colony collapse disorder).

According to the Beeologics website the expertise of Beeologics is going to help Monsanto "further explore the use of biologicals." Judging by some of the buzz going on on the web, it seems that some people are suspicious of Monsanto.

Based on their previous behavior related to their GMO soybeans and other seeds, perhaps Monsanto plans to insert genes into bees, bees that are designed to be immune to their poisons, so they can control the pollinators, claim them as their property, and sue people who's bees may cross breed with their genetically modified bees. Of course, this is all speculation, Monsanto claims there are no such plans.

In spite of intensive research, the cause of Colony Collapse Disorder has so far been an elusive mystery. Theories put forth by researchers include:

  • Varroa mite
  • Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus
  • Nosema (a gut parasite)
  • Pesticide Poisoning
  • Bee Management Stress
  • Loss of Foraging Habitat
  • Poor Nutrition
  • Suppressed Immunity


Monsanto also manufactures a seed coating that is used with an insect neurotoxin called clothianidin. The coating is used to adhere clothianidin to seeds.

Clothianidin was developed by Bayer Corporation to kill rootworms in corn and other crops. Bayer’s own studies indicated that clothianidin was very poisonous to bees, but the company claimed that since it would be on the seed, under the ground, it could not affect flying insects.

In 2008, after bee keepers Germany reported a massive die off of honey bees linked to clothianidin, the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection suspended its registration. Some French studies suggest that sub-lethal doses of clothianidin disrupt bees' foraging activity and causes them to become disoriented.

Studies conducted in 2012 have shown that pesticide dust stirred up during the planting process may contaminate adjacent land and remain there for years, where it may be drawn up into non-crop plants and ingested by bees or other insects.

Clothianidin is a neonicotinoid, it is chemically similar to nicotine. Nicotine has been used as a pesticide for over 200 years. Neonicotinoids have gotten a lot of press lately as a possible cause for CCD. However, there still is no definitive scientific answer as to what is causing CCD.

Plan Bee: Native Bees

Before the European bees were introduced, there were already several thousand native species of bees in North America. Native species are great pollinators. They are better adapted to the environment and are able to forage in harsher weather conditions and on a per-visit basis are actually more efficient pollinators than honey bees are.

Native bees are not social bees, they do not live in large colonies, so they are less vulnerable to diseases and pests, but there are not enough of them to provide all of the pollination needed for the type of industrial farming usually practiced today. Also, native bees are also not so easy to manipulate. You can't put them in a truck and transport them across the state.

Bumble Bee on Thistle


Is it possible for native bees take over the job honey bees have been doing?

Well, not exactly. UC Berkeley Professor Clare Kremen, studied native bees in Yolo County, in the Central Valley of California for 10 years. Her team looked at bees in a variety of farms. Some of the farms studied had plenty of natural bee habitat nearby, others were completely surrounded by agricultural land. Some were organic farms, others were industrial agricultural enterprises.

They studied the number and diversity of bee specimens that visited each farm. Her study found that 80% of organic farms near natural bee habitat were adequately pollinated by native bees. 50% of conventional farms near natural habitat were adequately pollinated by native bees. None of the conventional farms and very few of the organic farms in exclusively agricultural areas got significant pollination by native bees.

This study would seem to indicate that if we expect native bees to do more of the work honey bees have been doing, farming practices will have to change. Some things that can be done are: allow cover crops to flower, put strips of flowering plants between fields, and leave areas of undisturbed soil. Leaving dead trees and creating hedgerows, making nesting boxes, planting more diverse crops and using less pesticides would also be beneficial for native bees.

Wild Bees


Things you can do make your yard a hospitable place for native bees.

  • Avoid Pesticides - they are harmful to bees
  • Avoid Herbicides - let those flowering weeds grow, they provide food for bees
  • Provide water and mud - many species of bee use mud to build nests
  • Avoid mowing - it kills bees
  • Try clover instead of grass - bees love it
  • Leave undisturbed areas in your yard - bees need them for nesting
  • Plant more flowers - more flowers - more nectar
  • Use bright colors - they are attractive to bees
  • Allow native species to grow - native plants are the ones the native bees are best adapted to, leave some of those dandelions and thistles they provide food for bees when there's not much else around
  • Encourage plant diversity - different bees have different needs, plant diversity encourages bee diversity
  • Keep a succession of flowers in bloom - especially in spring and autumn bees may have a hard time finding food
  • Live and let live - if bees choose an inconvenient place to nest, try to work around it

Bee on Lavender


Comments 36 comments

thougtforce profile image

thougtforce 4 years ago from Sweden

This is a great and interesting article about an important topic and a very good answer to the question! I can not imagine what our world as we know it, would be without the bees and we must all do what we can to help. The first thing is to increase knowledge because I still meet people who automatically kills bees on their property without thinking. This hub will help the bees and I hope many read this! voted up and sharing


whonunuwho profile image

whonunuwho 4 years ago from United States

I feel that we can resolve the problem of the loss of our bees by placing them in colonies in a sheltered structure, such as a glass dome, filled with all the needs that life forms require. We will have to make a concerted effort in saving the colonies remaining because they are so vital to our own survival in pollination of plant life on this planet. Butterflies, humming birds, and wind all help pollinate, yet the honey bee, as well as an assortment of other insects and larger bees provide a service for all other living things by their transfer of pollen, as they move from flower to flower. The African bees will have to be controlled and not allowed to cross-breed with the European variety. It is well established that we depend upon the bees for helping to fertilize our food crops and beautiful flowering plants. Through an accident several years ago and an experiment gone wrong, the African bees were allowed to escape and since then, have migrated to a greater portion of North America, and are causing havoc by cross breeding and attacking animal life, including people. It has been claimed the a type of virus is infecting the bees and is one cause of colony collapse. We need to do much research on this and target it as being vital to survival of all animal species!

On a personal note, I have noticed that the usual tomato and vegetable crops that we have enjoyed in the past three years have been down quite a bit and not as many bees and butterflies seem to be about pollinating as usual. I wonder if other species of flying insects are also being affected by some source and all may be in danger of becoming extinct if we don't act very soon to help prevent this grave issue.

Sherry Hewins profile image

Sherry Hewins 4 years ago from Sierra Foothills, CA Author

Thanks whonunuwho, I have noticed that some of my fruit trees no longer bear fruit, and my zucchini plants grow beautiful flowers but no zucchini. I fear it is a pollination problem. I am going to make more of an effort to attract native bees this spring. Although lots of research is taking place it seems there are no easy answers.

Irob profile image

Irob 4 years ago from St. Charles

Please note that in the MArch 2012 issue just out on Newstands, of Scientific American a surprising new clue was found in the cause of this problem, discovered by accident. Scientist now believe that there are two causes combining and have been able to test this so far on colonies that have collpased.

Sherry Hewins profile image

Sherry Hewins 4 years ago from Sierra Foothills, CA Author

Thanks for your comment Irob. I have read articles in several periodicals that claim to have the cause, but then the next month there is another that claims a different cause. I read one that cited a study showing that Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus and Nosema in combination were to blame, where most bees were able to survive only one or the other. But, a year later other hypotheses are still being tested. I have also seen claims that the pesticide clothianidin in sub-lethal doses is the cause.

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