Air Pollution: Sources, Effects, Prevention and Control

Updated on August 10, 2017
varsha bang profile image

Varsha is an enthusiastic writer who loves to share informative content. She loves to write about political and social issues.

Air Pollution-It is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air.

Air Pollutants-They are the substances which pollute the air. Some of the common pollutants are dust, soot, ash, carbon monoxide, excess of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons(CFC), lead compounds, asbestos dust, cement dust, pollens and radioactive rays.


Source

Sources of Air Pollution

The pollution of air can be caused by natural processes or by human activities.

  • The sources of air pollution are classified into two groups:
  1. Natural Sources
  2. Man made sources

Natural Sources of Air Pollution-They are dust storms, forest fires, ash from smoking volcanoes, decay of organic matters and pollen grains floating in air.

Manmade Sources of Air Pollution-They are population explosion, deforestation, urbanisation and industrialisation, whose effects can be explained as follows:

  1. Burning of fuels like wood, cow dung cakes, coal and kerosene in homes pollute the air.
  2. Exhaust gases emitted by motor vehicles which pollute the air are the major source of air pollution in big cities.
  3. Industries pollute air by releasing various types of pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, oxides of carbon, nitrogen oxide, chlorine, asbestos dust and cement dust.
  4. Thermal power plants pollute air by emitting sulphur dioxide and fly-ash.
  5. Nuclear power plants pollute air by releasing radioactive rays.
  6. Use of fertilisers and pesticides in agriculture pollute the air.
  7. Mining activities releases particulate matter into the air and pollutes it.
  8. Indiscriminate cutting of trees and clearing of forests increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and thereby pollutes it.
  9. Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, fire extinguishers and aerosol sprayers pollutes air by depleting the ozone layer.
  10. Smoking pollutes air by emitting carbon monoxide and nicotine.

Source

Harmful Effects of Air Pollution

  1. Air pollution affects respiratory system causing breathing difficulties and diseases such as bronchitis, asthma, lung cancer, tuberculosis and pneumonia.
  2. It affects the central nervous system causing carbon monoxide poisoning. CO has more affinity for haemoglobin than oxygen and thus forms a stable compound carboxy haemoglobin(COHb), which is poisonous and causes suffocation and death.
  3. It causes depletion of ozone layer due to which ultraviolet radiations can reach the earth and cause skin cancer, damage to eyes and immune system.
  4. It causes acid rain which damages crop plants, trees, buildings, monuments, statues and metal structures and also makes the soil acidic.
  5. It causes greenhouse effect and global warming which leads to excessive heating of earth's atmosphere, further leading to weather variability and rise in sea level. The increased temperature may cause melting of ice caps and glaciers, resulting in floods.
  6. Air pollution from certain metals, pesticides and fungicides causes serious ailments.
  • Lead pollution causes anaemia, brain damage, convulsions and death.
  • Certain metals cause problem in kidney, liver, circulatory system and nervous system.
  • Fungicides cause nerve damage and death.
  • Pesticides like DDT(Dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane) which are toxic enter into our food chain and gets accumulated in the body causing kidney disorders and problems of brain and circulatory system.

Prevention And Control of Air Pollution

Different techniques are used for controlling air pollution caused by 'gaseous pollutants' and that caused by 'particulate pollutants'.

  • Methods of controlling gaseous pollutants-The air pollution caused by gaseous pollutants like hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide, ammonia, carbon monoxide, etc can be controlled by using three different methods-Combustion, Absorption and Adsorption.
  1. Combustion-This technique is applied when the pollutants are organic gases or vapours. The organic air pollutants are subjected to 'flame combustion or catalytic combustion' when they are converted to less harmful product carbon dioxide and a harmless product water.
  2. Absorption-In this method, the polluted air containing gaseous pollutants is passed through a scrubber containing a suitable liquid absorbent. The liquid absorbs the harmful gaseous pollutants present in air.
  3. Adsorption-In this method, the polluted air is passed through porous solid adsorbents kept in suitable containers. The gaseous pollutants are adsorbed at the surface of the porous solid and clean air passes through.
  • Methods of controlling particulate emissions-The air pollution caused by particulate matter like dust, soot, ash, etc can be controlled by using fabric filters, wet scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators and certain mechanical devices.
  1. Mechanical Devices-It works on the basis of following:
  • Gravity-In this process, the particulate settle down by the action of gravitational force and get removed.
  • Sudden change in the direction of air flow-It brings about separation of particles due to greater momentum.

2. Fabric Filters-The particulate matter is passed through a porous medium made of woven or filled fabrics.

  • The particulate present in the polluted air are filtered and gets collected in the fabric filters, while the gases are discharged.
  • The process of controlling air pollution by using fabric filters is called 'bag filtration'.

3. Wet Scrubbers-They are used to trap SO2, NH3 and metal fumes by passing the fumes through water.

4. Electrostatic Precipitators-When the polluted air containing particulate pollutants is passed through an electrostatic precipitator, it induces electric charge on the particles and then the aerosol particles get precipitated on the electrodes.

Some other methods of controlling Air Pollution:

  1. Tall chimneys should be installed in factories.
  2. Better designed equipment and smokeless fuels should be used in homes and industries.
  3. Renewable and non-polluting sources of energy like solar energy, wind energy, etc should be used.
  4. Automobiles should be properly maintained and adhere to emission control standards.
  5. More trees should be planted along roadsides and houses.





Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • profile image

      Adeshewa 

      39 hours ago

      Very good

    • profile image

      Adarsh 

      3 weeks ago

      Thanks for helps me

    • profile image

      kusum 

      4 weeks ago

      Very nice

    • profile image

      kusum 

      4 weeks ago

      Nice

    • profile image

      Kusum 

      4 weeks ago

      Nice explanation

    • profile image

      ShuBham SaHu 

      6 weeks ago

      Thank u so much Dear

    • profile image

      Isha Dilliwale 

      2 months ago

      This is very useful information but add pictures related to control measure

    • profile image

      Maseera saife 

      3 months ago

      Thanks it helped me in geography activity

    • profile image

      Dhanunjay 

      3 months ago

      Thanks it helped me a lot in chemistry project

    • profile image

      Feranmi 

      3 months ago

      This is educating and it is also wonderful. kudos to you and more power to your elbow.

    • profile image

      Kissi 

      3 months ago

      Thanks for notes

    • profile image

      Garima 

      3 months ago

      Very nice

    • profile image

      ruvimbo nyandoro 

      4 months ago

      Nice one

    • profile image

      ayushmsn 

      5 months ago

      thanks i like this

    • profile image

      Aaradhya Acharjee 

      5 months ago

      dear writer can u write more about the control of air pollution

    • profile image

      pal 

      5 months ago

      1..why there is need to control a air pollution?

      2..Combustion causes a air pollution instead we uses a combustion to control a Air pollution. why.... ?

    • profile image

      chandana senapati 

      5 months ago

      Add more

    • profile image

      Shaurya srivastava 

      7 months ago

      Very very nice essay of air pollution

    • profile image

      Pramila Agarwal 

      8 months ago

      Thanks because of you I am able to do my work thank you very much

    • profile image

      parjapati 

      8 months ago

      very nice

    • profile image

      Nistha Kafle 

      9 months ago

      Sufficient information

    • profile image

      AANVI 

      9 months ago

      so nice

    • profile image

      Tanmoy paul 

      9 months ago

      Thanks help for my project

    • profile image

      wow u are on point 

      11 months ago

      plliiiiiz add more

    • profile image

      Dilshad khan 

      11 months ago

      This article helped everyone to make project or assignment. Nobody is thinking about to save the nature from pollution.we should follow tips given to control pollution.

      Think before it Delays.

    • profile image

      Ravina Shrirao 

      12 months ago

      It is very easy for doing school project work

      THANK YOU

    • profile image

      Mrudulesh 

      12 months ago

      very nice assay isn't it

    • profile image

      Ravi Singh 

      12 months ago

      Thanks for doing my assignment

    • profile image

      SatyomSingh 

      12 months ago

      It is very helpful for me thanks

    • profile image

      Vidya 

      12 months ago

      It's really very helpful for my assignment . Thanks a lot.

    • profile image

      Hasrat 

      12 months ago

      Thankyou so much it will help to making my project and assignments,

    • profile image

      Amala 

      13 months ago

      Thank for your service in my assignment

    • profile image

      empty 

      13 months ago

      thanks for giving this information

    • profile image

      Nitish Dubey 

      13 months ago

      Thank you

    • profile image

      Shaktimayee 

      13 months ago

      Thanks it's very helpful for environment

    • profile image

      MAYANK 

      13 months ago

      THANKS

      it helps in doing my assignment.

    • profile image

      saachi 

      13 months ago

      it helps me in doing my notes of holiday homework

    • profile image

      Alia 

      13 months ago

      Thanks you it helped in my project

    • profile image

      Prakruthi 

      14 months ago

      Very nice it help's in my seminar

    • Nathanville profile image

      Arthur Russ 

      14 months ago from England

      Very informative information, and quite relevant to my interest in Renewable Energy Technologies; thanks for sharing.

    • profile image

      Anita 

      14 months ago

      Very good n sufficient information thank u

    • profile image

      Arun 

      14 months ago

      Very good

    • profile image

      Yashvi 

      15 months ago

      Very nice

    • profile image

      balramkumar25121997@gmail.com 

      15 months ago

      Good

    • profile image

      Cristiano Ronaldo 

      15 months ago

      Thank you

    • profile image

      Dolly Rajput 

      15 months ago

      Thanks

    • profile image

      Aakriti Neupane 

      15 months ago

      Thank you very much.It helps me a lot.

    • profile image

      Sh........... 

      18 months ago

      Clear concept

    • varsha bang profile imageAUTHOR

      Varsha 

      20 months ago from India

      Thankyou for the kind words. Happy to help.

    • profile image

      Bieber 

      20 months ago

      Helpful in gaining knowledge.

    • profile image

      unknown 

      20 months ago

      there is a difference between prevention and control

    • profile image

      Mejones 

      22 months ago

      Very helpful indeed.

    • profile image

      Spencer 

      22 months ago

      Add Your message.

    • profile image

       

      23 months ago

      Oh it's very cool versha

    • profile image

      Sanjay 

      23 months ago

      Nice information

    • profile image

      2 years ago

      very good

    • profile image

      Amar babu 

      2 years ago

      Thanks

    • profile image

      Amar babu 

      2 years ago

      Thanks

    • profile image

      salman tipu 

      2 years ago

      Thanks a lot. Its really very helpful for us.

    • profile image

      Emily 

      2 years ago

      Its awesome. Upto point and straightforward.

      Thanx alot.

    • profile image

      sai teja Jumbidi 

      2 years ago

      Very good information

      Very interesting

    • profile image

      Manada 

      2 years ago

      Thanks

    • profile image

      Tarun jaitaka 

      2 years ago

      Thanks your information

    • profile image

      Seemant Panwar 

      2 years ago

      Awesome i get good knowledge nfrom this

    • profile image

      Aaru 

      2 years ago

      Amazing information

    • profile image

      kasi 

      2 years ago

      thanks

    • profile image

      Nihma nazar 

      2 years ago

      Thank u for giving this information

    • profile image

      yadav boys 

      2 years ago

      nice

    • profile image

      pranavaraaj 

      2 years ago

      need a little more info and about green house effect

    • profile image

      Bhavna 

      2 years ago

      This information helped me a lot.

    • profile image

      lisa 

      2 years ago

      nice helped alot

    • profile image

      qadar roma 

      2 years ago

      thanks really it i liked and easilly my assignment

    • profile image

      Kisan Rajak 

      2 years ago

      Excelent knowledge?

      Bravo!

    • profile image

      JOSEPH ORIM 

      2 years ago

      It was wonderful to have sourced this article. Bravo!

    • profile image

      Babu 

      2 years ago

      I need to get this information....thank u

    • profile image

      Robokant Rajesh 

      2 years ago

      Excellent.

    • profile image

      sanjana 

      2 years ago

      Its useful for me thank u soapboxie

    • profile image

      2 years ago

      thanks

    • profile image

      Digbijay Nayak 

      2 years ago

      Thank You for this amazing article.

    • profile image

      Balaraj Yadav 

      2 years ago

      Thanks for giving good information

    • profile image

      kavya 

      2 years ago

      Helped today to complete my PPT.

    • profile image

      aryan 

      2 years ago

      Thank you to help me in my project

    • profile image

      Antara 

      2 years ago

      Thanx its very concise and helpful

    • profile image

      veerpal muskan 

      2 years ago

      Thx very helpful to my project

    • profile image

      Nandini 

      2 years ago

      Good help in my project

    • profile image

      Tony Ebutte 

      2 years ago

      Was very helpful and comprehensive. Bravo!!! @ Author.

    • profile image

      utkarsha 

      2 years ago

      Really awesome thing for my

      It help's me for clear my all doubts in my study

    • profile image

      Biprojit Bhattacharjee 

      2 years ago

      Halp in my school project thanks

    • profile image

      Chethan 

      2 years ago

      Thanks for this information

    • profile image

      Gayathri.M 

      2 years ago

      Excellent information it is very useful for my research work of M.ed

    • profile image

      vikash jain 

      2 years ago

      Thanks ........ It really help me a lot to completed my project

    • profile image

      Bob&Wendy 

      2 years ago

      yeah thx so much for the helpful info

    • profile image

      ishu shiwakoti 

      2 years ago

      wao it helped me a lot it was my project work

    • profile image

      Lee 

      2 years ago

      thx its helped.A LOT.

    • profile image

      rushma 

      2 years ago

      thnk uh

    • profile image

      Thanks it helps me in MY science PROJECT  

      2 years ago

      Thanks very much

    • profile image

      varsha 

      2 years ago

      Very cusefull

    • profile image

      DEBASIS SAMANTA 

      2 years ago

      Thank you very much..............

    • profile image

      ketan Gaidhane 

      3 years ago

      Thanks it information are very nic to complete by project

    • profile image

      ritesh 

      3 years ago

      it was very informative but i have to prepare working model on air pollution. so can u just help me or give some innovative ideal and its urgent

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, soapboxie.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://soapboxie.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)