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Recognizing Propaganda Examples

Updated on August 30, 2016
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Mike has a keen interest in the effects of politics in our culture. He has a unique way of simplifying complex concepts.

In this day and age, we are bombarded by so much information about politics and social issues, it is hard to sort it all out. One thing is for sure, it is fraught with propaganda and the spinning of issues.

Propaganda Techniques have been used throughout history to manipulate ones thinking to buy certain products, vote a certain way, or to change one's thinking about religious or civil issues. Propaganda is still being used today in very subtle and sophisticated ways.


Types of Propaganda:

The following paragraphs describe the 10 most common propaganda techniques, give examples of how they are used, and give pointers so you can recognize propaganda techniques when they are used. The purpose of this hub is to empower you to form your own opinions without the influence of the propaganda. Here is a list of the techniques covered:

  • Name-Calling
  • Glittering Generalities
  • Transfer
  • False Analogy
  • Testimonial
  • Plain Folks
  • Card Stacking
  • Bandwagon
  • Either/or fallacy
  • Faulty Cause and Effect
  • Spinning the Issues

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1. Name-Calling

This technique associates a negative name to a person or a thing. This is used when people are trying to avoid supporting their own opinion with facts. Instead of explaining what they believe in, they diminish their opponent's position by name-calling. Examples of this technique include: racists, sexists, homophobic, Marxists, socialists, Fascists.

When experiencing name-calling ask yourself the following questions:

  • What does the name or label mean to me?
  • Does the idea in question have a valid connection with the real meaning of the name or label?
  • Is it an idea that serves my best interests being dismissed by giving it a name I don't like?
  • If I remove the name, what are the merits of the idea by itself?

2. Glittering Generalities:

This technique uses important-sounding "glad words" that have little or no real meaning. These words are used in general statements that cannot be proved or disproved. Glad words are usually adjectives used to enhance the idea being presented. They include words like "good," "honest," "fair," "excellent" and "best.". When confronted with Glad Words, ask yourself the following questions:

  • What does the glad word really mean to me?
  • Does the idea being presented have a valid connection with how the word is being used?
  • .Are they trying to sell me something that is not in my best interests by using words that I like?
  • If the glad word is removed, does the idea still have merit?

3. Transfer

In this technique, an attempt is made to transfer the prestige of a positive symbol to a person or an idea. For example, using the American flag on the side of a bus for a political event suggests that the event includes a form of patriotism. Gun sights in red or blue on regions of a map suggest that those are the targeted regions by the party affiliation. When confronted with the transfer device, ask the following questions:

  • In the most simple and valid terms, what is being proposed?
  • What is the meaning of the the thing from which the propagandist is seeking to transfer authority, sanction, and prestige?
  • Is there any legitimate connection between the proposal of the propagandist and the revered thing, person or institution?
  • If the symbol is removed, does the proposal still have merit?

4. False Analogy

In a false analogy, two concepts or events are associated with each other without any specific evidence indicating a cause and effect relationship. An example is: People who drink caffeinated coffee don't sleep well, Nancy drinks caffeinated coffee, therefore she does not sleep well.

When examining the comparison, ask yourself how similar the items are. In most false analogies, there is simply not enough evidence available to support the comparison.

5. Testimonial

This technique is easy to understand. It is when "big name" personalities are used to endorse a product, person, or organization. Whenever you see someone famous endorsing these things, ask yourself how much that person knows about that thing, and what he or she stands to gain by promoting it. Politicians and commercial ads use this all the time. An example would be a well known, very wealthy person endorsing a politicians campaign.

6. Plain Folks

This technique uses a folksy approach to convince us to support someone or something. These ads show people with ordinary looks doing ordinary activities like riding a bicycle, fishing with the family, etc. When viewing this technique, we should suspend judgment and ask ourselves the following questions:

  • What are the propagandist's ideas worth when divorced from his or her personality?
  • What could he or she be trying to cover up with the plain-folks approach?
  • What are the facts?

7. Card Stacking

This term comes from stacking a deck of cards in your favor. Card stacking is used to slant a message. Key words or unfavorable statistics may be omitted in an ad or commercial, leading to a series of half-truths. Here are two examples of Card stacking used in slogans: "Are you ready for some real food?' "We wouldn't serve it, if it didn't taste better."

Keep in mind that an advertiser is under no obligation "to give the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth."

8. Bandwagon

The "bandwagon" approach encourages you to think that because everyone else is doing something, you should do it too, or you'll be left out. The technique embodies a "keeping up with the Joneses" philosophy. This technique is used to create momentum for movements.

It may be helpful to ask the following questions:

  • What is this program really about?
  • What is the evidence for and against the program?
  • Should I support this program, regardless of how others feel?
  • Does the program serve or undermine my values and beliefs?

9. Either/or fallacy

This technique is also called "black-and-white thinking" because only two choices are given. You are either for something or against it; there is no middle ground or shades of gray. It is used to polarize issues, and negates all attempts to find a common ground. Example: "You are either for Democracy or your are against it. A limited number of options (usually two) is given, while in
reality there are more options.

10. Faulty Cause and Effect

This technique suggests that because B follows A, A must cause B. Remember, just because two events or two sets of data are related does not necessarily mean that one caused the other to happen. It is important to evaluate data carefully before jumping to a wrong conclusion.

As an example of how logic can be abused, consider the following argument:

  • Premise 1: Joe Smith supports gun-control legislation.
  • Premise 2: All fascist organizations have passed gun-control legislation.
  • Conclusion: Therefore, Joe Smith is a fascist.

11. Spinning the Issues

Spinning the issues is another form of propaganda that is very subtle and yet very sophisticated. It involves the use of substituting words and phrases that have a particular meaning with other similar words and phrases that change the thinking of the audience to manipulate the outcome in the favor of the "Spinner." The following is a list of do's and dont's that Republican Stategist's Frank Luntz told the governeror's convention how to substitute words and phrases to change how republicans talk about the Occupy Wall Street Movement.

Conclusion

I hope this has enlightened you and empowered you to recognize propaganda when it is being used so that you can form your own opinions and draw your own conclusions to better your life.


© 2012 Mike Russo

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    • Highvoltagewriter profile image

      William Benner 5 years ago from Savannah GA.

      This is a well constructed article filled with precise information. Thank you so much for clarifying certain points!

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 5 years ago from Placentia California

      Thank you for the comments. I'm glad it clarified points for you. It was also an educational experience for me while I was doing the research.

    • michiganman567 profile image

      michiganman567 5 years ago from Michigan

      Hmmm, maybe an argument for propaganda is accusing the person that you are talking to of using propaganda. Neutralizing your opposition with accusations.

      I don't know why calling someone a marxist or Nazi is propaganda if that person really is a marxist or Nazi. Can we call David Duke a clansman or is that propaganda? Can we say that Obama went to of church led by a communist black liberation preacher for 20 years, or is that propaganda?

      To answer your question from that other hub. Yes, I do believe that Obama is a communist. I think that if he had the power he would turn this nation into a communist nation. He is doing his part. It can not be accomplished overnight since the constitution still has a little bit of effect.

      You did write a very nice hub. I needed to get off of that other one. There were a few too many people arguing with me for leaving a one line comment.

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 5 years ago from Placentia California

      michiganman567 - I copied and pasted your comments below so that I can answer them.

      Hmmm, maybe an argument for propaganda is accusing the person that you are talking to of using propaganda. Neutralizing your opposition with accusations. You are not my oppposition. I am beginning to realize that in our zeal to prove something, we all use propaganda techniques.

      I don't know why calling someone a marxist or Nazi is propaganda if that person really is a marxist or Nazi. You can call Hilter a Nazi and you can call Karl Marx a Marxists with certainty, but calling someone a name based on your feelings about them or hearsay is way of influencing the converstaion without facts. Just because some people call Obama a marxists does not make him a marxists. Can we call David Duke a clansman or is that propaganda? David Duke is a Clansman. That's a fact. Can we say that Obama went to of church led by a communist black liberation preacher for 20 years, or is that propaganda? That's propaganda. You may be able to find articles that state that and even YouTube presenatations, but that does not make that person a communists without credible, verifiable proof.

      To answer your question from that other hub. Yes, I do believe that Obama is a communist. I think that if he had the power he would turn this nation into a communist nation. He is doing his part. It can not be accomplished overnight since the constitution still has a little bit of effect. What would be the motivation for Obama to turn this country into a communist country?

      I believe there are people in this country who are stuck in the cold war and have a fear of communism. That's old stuff. The Soviet Union is gone. But there are folks that think every time the government does something that it's a slippery slope to communism. The real question here is what is the role of government in our society today?

      You did write a very nice hub. I needed to get off of that other one. There were a few too many people arguing with me for leaving a one line comment.

      Thank You - Mike Russo

    • michiganman567 profile image

      michiganman567 5 years ago from Michigan

      Do we need a soviet union to beware of communism? The last time I looked China has the second largest economy in the world and they are communist. If they become expansionists like the soviet union then what is the difference, other than the fact that they own us?

      The role of government is the same that it has always been. To provide a common defense and provide what is necessary to ensure the pursuit of life, liberty and happiness.

      What would Obama's motivation toward Marxism be? He believes that it is the right thing to do. He thinks that america is flawed and always has been. He thinks that he has a duty to right every injustice that has happened since the founding of this country. Take from the rich and give to the poor. It is a recipe for economic disaster.

      Oh, and just because my tone may seem angry or as a matter of fact. Actually, I do not take comments from people to heart, unless they are personal attacks. I realize that 50% of the country disagrees with me, and I am unlikely to change their minds.

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 5 years ago from Placentia California

      michiganman567 - I copied your paragraph.

      What would Obama's motivation toward Marxism be? He believes that it is the right thing to do. He thinks that america is flawed and always has been. He thinks that he has a duty to right every injustice that has happened since the founding of this country. Take from the rich and give to the poor. It is a recipe for economic disaster.

      How do you know he thinks these things?

      You say he robs from the rich to give to the poor. I say our government protects the rich and makes them richer by an economic engine that is made up of corporations and monied interests, lobbyists and congress. They give the money to congress so that congress will protect their interest so that congressman can get re-elected. Have you heard of the Supremes Courts ruling on Citizens United. If you haven't please google it. The conservative marching order is that government is too big. This is the code word for cut-out entitlemments because that's how Obama robs from the rich to give to the poor. Actually my friend it's wall street that has robbed from the middle class, you and me, to give to the rich. That's what the bailout was all about and congress no matter which party will protect them. They live by the Golden Rule. He who has the gold rules. Whoever gets nominated for the Republican Party is the one who is going to protect Wall Street and the Super Rich. We have all been hypnotized by "Government being to big and this socialist crap." It's to cover up what is really going on. You think you have representation by the people? That's a thing of the past. It's now representation by corperations to exploit the middle class. Congress is beholden to the money.

      Where did the bail out money go? It went to pay enormous bonus and salary to the people who created the financial meltdown, not to the entitlement programs.

    • michiganman567 profile image

      michiganman567 5 years ago from Michigan

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dt7zWQMHLFY I am not making anything up. The man has given 1000 speeches don't you think that his thoughts are out there for you to find?

      Obama thinks that the "rich" are people that make over 250k. Those are Business owners, not tycoons. But I know that if you take all of the money from the "rich" and you give it to the poor. The only thing that will come of it is that everyone will be poor. Look at Cuba. We have 100 years of that crap and it doesn't work, and it shouldn't even have to be debated.

      GE paid 0 in income tax, under OBAMA!! Solendra got millions, GM got billions, then more billions to build the Volt. Im not saying that the big money men aren't taken care of. I don't have much use for 90% of republicans either. You won't see me praising very many of them. I wrote something on Santorum, but he doesn't excite me, he is just better than the rest.

      I was against TARP, and I would vote against anyone that voted for it. I am not for getting rid of social security. I think that people paid for it, and it is owed to the people. I do not see it as an entitlement. I see it as the government paying back a debt. I would even be for cutting military spending if I thought that all of the useless waste was cut from the civilian government. Something has to happen or else we will not have a country. It is about paying off a debt that is growing out of control.

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 5 years ago from Placentia California

      I looked at the video. That is a classic example of what I described on my propaganda hub. The title of the presentation is a propaganda technique, the hammer and cycle, the american flag with a hammer and cycle. This is a technique called "Transfer." The callouts that you can't read, even if you pause the video. The out of context speech.

      Look I could go on and on. I believe that in politics, if you are looking for something that fits your values and belief system, you will find it, especially today with the internet and the 24 hour news cycle. But that doesn't make it fact. It's like conspiracy theory. I'm not saying you are one of those. See the fact that you said GE paid 0 income tax not only happened under Obama, but also Bush. How about Enron, how about just about all the major corporations? And yet they still want lower taxes. The fact that you say, he wants to tax everybody over 250K and that they are business owners is only a half truth. It also assumes that he is going to give that revenue to the poor. It will tax everybody over 250K at a marginal tax rate, not the whole 250K. How about captial gains breaks and dividends breaks for the super rich that Bush put in place and Obama has tried to get them removed, but the monyeied interests won't allow it. How about the regulations that were removed that were the root cause of the financial meltdown. Obama tried to get those re-instated, but the powers would not allow it. See I just stated that as fact and I can back it up with real facts. But that's another story. Look up the Glass-Stegal Act.

      You are half right about social security, but it is an insurance and the payments on it are the same as premiums. The reason they want to privatize social security is to exploit the people by Wall Street. Can you imagine how many people would be taken advantage of by investment brokers? Just look at people's 401K's. That's taking money from the middle class and giving it to the super rich. Who do think is going to get those commissions by churnining the investments?

      I enjoy sparring with you. You are a great writer. I think we both have learned from each other. Besides, I see you have another hub about Ron Paul that I would like to comment on, when I get a chance. In that hub, I agree with most everything you say. See you on the flip side.

      Mike Russo

    • michiganman567 profile image

      michiganman567 5 years ago from Michigan

      Originally my first line said that I wasn't going to find you proof because you won't believe it anyway. Then I thought that was kind of lazy, so I found a solid video with a lot of evidence. And you didn't believe one thing on it!!! That is what I get for not trusting my gut.

      Capitol gains taxes hurt investment. You have to give people incentive to play the casino... I mean stock market. They also hurt everyone when it comes to inheritance. Someone was telling me how much they had to pay in capitol gains when they sold their family farm. That is not going after the fat cats. All of these things have consequences.

      When did I mention Bush once? I am not all for corporate income tax reductions either. Actually I am not a big fan of "free trade". Find me a party that would support that.

      Any raise in taxes is a redistribution of wealth, unless everyone is paying the same rate. The communist manifesto supported a heavy graduated income tax too, but I guess that is just a coincidence.

      I'm not going to look into every crisis and it's causes. The whole federal reserve system is a scam, and we were taken off of the gold standard by a democrat if you really want to get into it. Then off of the Silver standard by Nixon I believe. Now our debt is out of control. How do you fix it? Not by continuing to spend out of control. If Bush had a D by his name you would have loved him. He spent as badly as Obama. The truth is that both of these parties are in this together. The only thing that the republicans do is slow down the expansion of government. Neither party rolls back the expansion of government at all.

      Thank you for reading my Ron Paul hub.

      Matt

    • Brett.Tesol profile image

      Brett Caulton 5 years ago from Thailand

      Voted up and awesome. Strangely when I lived in the UK, I believed we only got the truth. However, when I traveled, I suddenly saw different perspectives of the same stories from back home, and man was it twisted!!

      Thanks for SHARING.

    • J.S.Matthew profile image

      JS Matthew 5 years ago from Massachusetts, USA

      So well organized! I like how you provide a list and then dive into each point in depth. Very useful and voted up as such! Sharing with followers.

      Thanks for SHARING!

      JSMatthew~

    • Deborah Brooks profile image

      Deborah Brooks Langford 5 years ago from Brownsville,TX

      This is a very educational.. Very well written. I LOVE HOW YOU LISTED EVERYTHING. great hub.

      I voted up

      Debbie

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 5 years ago from Placentia California

      Thank you Deborah. I appreciate the comments.

    • charles wade profile image

      charles wade 5 years ago from Chicago, Illinois

      Politically, propaganda seems to be used in unison by big government supporters from both parties working together to deceive the American people as they continue to protect Wall Street, big business and big government at our expense. We the people need to quit being so gullible and learn to test everything.

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 5 years ago from Placentia California

      I agree with this comment.

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 5 years ago from Placentia California

      Charles, I agree. We are subjected to some form of propaganda everyday. I hope this has given you the tools to be able to see through the fog of propaganda.

      Thanks for SHARING

    • phdast7 profile image

      Theresa Ast 5 years ago from Atlanta, Georgia

      This is a useful Hub. The use of propaganda techniques is not exclusive to one fringe group or another, it is employed by politicians on both the right and the left.

      I spend a good bit of time going over this with my history students...they have the misapprehension that only communists, eg., the Soviets use propaganda, and even then, they aren't sure what the word means.

      The American public needs to have much greater clarity about bias, mis-information, propaganda, hyperbole, mis-direction. The faulty and distorted logic used regularly in the speeches of so many of our political leaders is simply appalling.

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 5 years ago from Placentia California

      Phdast, thank you for sharing your views. If we have an awareness of propaganda, then we start seeing it used in so many ways in our daily lives. Thanks for SHARING

    • profile image

      Brenda Durham 5 years ago

      Hi peoplepower73.

      Very useful well-written hub; voted up, useful, interesting.

      I agree with phdast7 in that we get propgandized from "both" sides. But honestly, as michiganman567 pointed out, people need to be able to call things like they are when there's huge evidence for it.

      I personally think (and have seen, from the News and events over the last few years) that most of the propoganda comes from the Left. They're experts at it, having practiced it so much; and so much so that they have no shame nor intend to be held to any responsibility for it at all. They're hell-bent on having things their own way, and to heck with the laws of God and the original integrity of the laws of our Land.

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 5 years ago from Placentia California

      Brenda: Thanks for your comments. I appreciated it.

    • UnnamedHarald profile image

      David Hunt 5 years ago from Cedar Rapids, Iowa

      This is a great article-- and the examples you give with each are perfect. Voted up, interesting and useful. Too bad that advertising isn't held to a higher standard-- but then again, apparently neither is politics.

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 5 years ago from Placentia California

      Thanks so much for stopping by. I'm glad you found the article interesting. We are bombarded with propaganda everyday and don't realize it.

    • Lady Guinevere profile image

      Debra Allen 5 years ago from West By God

      You have been hit by the Promoting Fairy and your hub will be promoted all over the place.

      I really liked your article!

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 5 years ago from Placentia California

      Wow! Thank you Lady. I've never been hit by a Promoting Fairy before. I'm glad you like the article. I'll visit your profile after this.

    • Bob Zermop profile image

      Bob Zermop 5 years ago from California, USA

      Excellent hub, great examples and summaries. I was led here by your follow (thank you) and am glad I got to see this hub; unfortunately, I could think of an example for every one of these - in the past week. This is a hub to share!

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 5 years ago from Placentia California

      Bob Zermop: Thanks for stopping by. I know we are bombarded daily by this propaganda on both sides. Thanks for sharing.

    • rcrumple profile image

      Rich 4 years ago from Kentucky

      Great Hub! Propaganda has been a part of our lives forever, no doubt. The 60's taught us a lot of lessons, and sadly, demonstrated that our government didn't always speak the truth, either. I agree with many of your comments made, especially those to michiganman567. We are truly in a position today, similar to those that instigated the original Boston Tea Party...taxation without representation! All politicians are exceptionally wealthy, and have to be so to campaign. How can the man that has never worn the shoes represent those that are living in them? Between all the lifetime politicians and their industrial and lobbying constituents, favors are lifetime commitments. Personally, I would like to see a mandate that limits terms of office to two, just like the presidency. That won't solve our problems, but every little bit helps. Again, Great Hub!

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 4 years ago from Placentia California

      rcrumple: I like your comment on shoes. The politicians today don't wear the shoes of the people , but the shoes of big monyed interests that get them re-elected. Thank you so much for dropping by and reading this hub.

    • profile image

      Ginger Ruffles 4 years ago

      Extremely useful hub. Information we should all know!

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 4 years ago from Placentia California

      Ginger Ruffles: Thanks for your comments. I hope you share this.Thanks for stopping by.

    • Joe Cook profile image

      Real Life Stories 4 years ago from UK

      Some thorough points there - food for thought!

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 4 years ago from Placentia California

      Joe Cook: Yes, I think that would equally apply in the UK. Thanks for dropping by.

    • profile image

      barry b. 4 years ago

      what category did the george bush use when he put the little girl in front of the mic to tell america that Iraq soldiers were throwing babies on the floor to steel their incubators in Kuwait ( later proven to be a crock! )

      but he got us to follow him into war.

    • JayeWisdom profile image

      Jaye Denman 4 years ago from Deep South, USA

      This is an excellent, well-organized article. I have a pretty good "propaganda detector", but there are many people who listen to the flim-flam and believe it without question.

      It was interesting to read the Yahoo article about Frank Luntz's instructions to the Republican governors. (I missed it when it appeared, so I'm glad you included the link. It's a perfect example of spin.) While Luntz suggested substituting the word "cooperate" for "compromise", that was totally misleading. There isn't a Republican politician at any level, from municipality to federal government, who will compromise OR cooperate outside the GOP agenda!

      Your background in technical writing is evident in the organization and clarity of your articles. Voted Up+++.

      Jaye

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 4 years ago from Placentia California

      barry b. I guess that is the Plain Folks technique. In that sense the little girl was just a plain innocent person. Thanks for dropping by.

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 4 years ago from Placentia California

      Hi Jaye: I watched a piece on Bill Moyers and Company about Ralph Reed who is currently the head of the Christian Fundamentalist movement. In the past he was part of the College Republicans which included Karl Rove, Grover Norquist, and Jack Abramoff. It became apparent to me that Ralph Reed uses many of these propaganda techniques on people of faith because it is mind set that can be easily influenced with out much questioning and they make a great voting bloc for the republican party.

    • dianetrotter profile image

      G. Diane Nelson Trotter 4 years ago from Fontana

      Great Hub. I hate political campaigns. They are rife with all of the above. Use of the flag is totally annoying as is name calling.

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 4 years ago from Placentia California

      dianetrotter: I agree with you. The movie Obama 2016 is loaded with all types of propaganda, that results in fear. Thanks for dropping by.

    • wba108@yahoo.com profile image

      wba108@yahoo.com 4 years ago from upstate, NY

      Calling someone a fascist has been a very effective way to smear an opponent. The reason for its effectiveness is the vagueness of the term and that there is no universally excepted definition of the term in the scholarly community. Joseph Stalin first began applying the term to his communist party rivals such as Leon Trotsky and others. The term was adapted by leftists worldwide as a club to punish any one with whom they disagreed with.

      Some examples of the abuse of the term fascist are as follows: Al Gore comparing global warming skeptics to Holocaust deniers. Charlie Rangel declaring that the 1994 republican “Contract with America” initiative, to be more extreme than Nazism. Nancy Pelosi’s false claim that healthcare protesters were wearing swastika armbands. Senator Byrd compared the Republicans efforts to prevent the Democrats from blocking Bush’s court nominees to Hitler’s abuse of the law. Bill Clinton calling the 2000 republican platform a fascist tract.

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 4 years ago from Placentia California

      Wba: Thanks for the examples of propaganda and thanks for stopping by. I think propaganda techniques are used by both sides and even in television commercials. If you stop and listen, we are constantly being bombarded by them.

    • wba108@yahoo.com profile image

      wba108@yahoo.com 4 years ago from upstate, NY

      The right also makes good use of propaganda of course by labeling opponents socialists, unpatriotic, Godless, takers etc...

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 4 years ago from Placentia California

      wba108@yahoo.com: I agree with you.

    • dianetrotter profile image

      G. Diane Nelson Trotter 4 years ago from Fontana

      statistics!!! I'd like to know who the 47% are.

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 4 years ago from Placentia California

      dianetrotter: I think it's the 47% that Romney said were not going to vote for him so he wasn't going to campaign for their vote. Thanks for dropping by.

    • Wickramshingle profile image

      Wickramshingle 3 years ago from East Coast

      You might be interested in finding out about Jacques Ellul (January 6, 1912 – May 19, 1994) a French philosopher, law professor, sociologist, lay theologian, and Christian anarchist who wrote the definitive book on propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes.

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 3 years ago from Placentia California

      Wickramshingle : I read some of the reviews on Amazon and it looks like an interesting read. I'm always interested in others views on what constitutes propaganda.

    • peoplepower73 profile image
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      Mike Russo 11 months ago from Placentia California

      I wrote this article four years ago, way before Donald Trump showed up as a candidate for President of the United States of America. Little did I realize that he uses almost everyone of these propaganda techniques. I believe it is necessary for the people to be able to see through his propaganda. All politicians do you these techniques, but not to the extent of Trump. This article gives you the tools to evaluate and see these techniques for what they really are.

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