Public Rights of Way on Private Land in England and Wales

Updated on February 4, 2019
Nathanville profile image

My interest in social and cultural politics extends from my interest in genealogy and history, and how they project into today's Societies.

River in the mountains of North Wales
River in the mountains of North Wales

Unique Legal Status

In simple terms, the law on ‘Public Rights of Way’ in England and Wales when crossing private land is the legal right to “pass and repass along the way”.

The freedom to roam the English and Welsh countryside, even when crossing private land, is largely uninhibited thanks to ancient ‘Common Laws’, reinforced by legislation passed by the Labour Government in 2000. Laws on ‘Rights of Way’ in Scotland are similar to those of England and Wales; but not so in Northern Ireland, where the freedom to roam across private land is greatly restricted.

This unique legal status makes Britain’s picturesque countryside one of the most freely accessible lands anywhere in the world.

A Privilege to be Cherished

When I recently corresponded with an American on this subject he pointed out that if people trespass on private land in the USA, apart from the risk of being prosecuted for trespassing, they also run the real risk of being shot.

It was this stark statement that made me realise how privileged we are in Britain; a privilege that we should be grateful for and which should be cherished.

It was his comments that made me decide to write this article to provide an overview of the legal status of ‘Public Rights of Way’ in Britain, and to provide an opportunity in the ‘Comments’ at the bottom of this Article for British people to express their experiences of Rambling in the UK, and for Americans and others to express their views.

Hiking England's Public Footpaths

Your Views on Rambling

Do you (or would you if you could) enjoy walking for leisure?

See results

If you took part in the above 'Poll' and wish to elaborate on your answer, feel free to add your comments in the 'Comments' box at the end of this article.

Green and Pleasant Land

I know that, on speaking with Americans, that the English countryside isn’t on the grand scale of America e.g. the Grand Canyon, Yellow Park etc., but as small as Britain is compared to the size of America, it does have lots of open space, and is packed with stunning beauty and variety.

For example, Britain has 21 Moors, something that doesn’t exist in America, and in fact 15% of the world’s moorlands exist in the UK.

As well as the moorlands in Britain we also have:

  • 145 SSSI’s (Sites of Special Scientific Interest)
  • 15 National Parks
  • 46 AONBs (Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty)
  • Over 400 historic buildings e.g. castles, protected by English Heritage
  • More than 350 historic sites and sites of natural beauty protected by the National Trust.
  • 224 Nature Reserves
  • Over 2,700 square miles of forests protected by the Forestry Commission

In fact, when I think of Britain, compared to the USA, I always think of the film “Horton Hears a Who!”

Also, in typical British irony, although latest surveys show that 71% of the British Public are now ‘non-religious’, because of the phrase “In England’s Green and Pleasant Land” in the Jerusalem hymn, the song has been adopted by the British as England’s Unofficial ‘National Anthem’.

Unofficial National Anthem of England (England’s Green and Pleasant Land): Jerusalem

People Power

The British public haven’t always had the freedom to roam the British countryside. 200 years ago access was highly restricted, and we only have the freedoms we’ve got today because of people voting with their feet as part of over a century of campaigning to open up the countryside to free access for all.

Common Law

Under common law, dating back almost a thousand years, commoners (peasants) had a legal right to graze their animals on common land. Under the feudal system in medieval Britain, the Lord of the Manor would be granted land from the King, and in return granted rights to Commoners (the peasants) to use some of that land for grazing livestock and collecting fuel etc.

Also under common law, a network of paths crossing common and private land between local communities (villages) and town markets were established; and it’s many of these ancient paths that have become enshrined in modern legislation to protect the legal rights of way of the British public (under ‘Common Law’) to cross private land.

Erosion of Common Rights

From the 17th century most of the ‘Common Land’ was lost to Enclosure; a process that led to the Agricultural Revolution. Although there are still over 7,000 Commons in England that exist to this day; 74% of which in Wales is still used for grazing, and 35% in England for grazing. Enclosure was a process of fencing off land and ending the rights to Commoners to graze their livestock.

The Agricultural Revolution helped to feed the Industrial Revolution from the 1760s, which triggered the mass migration of millions of people from the rural villages to the urban towns and cities. However, within a generation the towns and cities became unpleasant areas to live, with high levels of poverty and disease.

So by the early 1800s, the more affluent members of urban society started to flock to the countryside on weekends for leisure; but in doing so (using ancient public footpaths) they would frequently cross over private land to get there.

It was at this time, in the early 19th century that farmers started to put up “Keep Out” signs, prosecute people for trespassing; and in extreme cases set mantraps to discourage walkers. A mantrap being a metal device with teeth, held back by a spring, that would trap a person’s leg (and maim them) if they stepped on it.

The Fight Back

From the early 1900s all this started to change when people voted with their feet. At that time, across the whole of Britain campaign groups would organise mass walks in protest to assert their ancient rights of way across private land to gain access to the countryside.

Although these protest walks led to frequent clashes between game keepers and walkers, the campaign grew and by the mid-1930s the various campaign groups across Britain came together to form the Ramblers Association.

Eventually, with continual organised campaigning from the Ramblers Association, the Labour Party in 2000 enshrined the legal use of established footpaths (Public Rights of Way) across private land in an Act of Parliament.

The effect of the Legislation is that all historic paths that appear on old maps have legal protected status, and under the Act, the Ramblers Association has until 2026 to identity any further, yet to be discovered ancient rights of ways, so that they may to be given legal protected status.

The History of the Ramblers Association

Popular British Pastime

All of the 140,000 miles of public footpaths (‘Rights of Way’) are now clearly marked on Ordinance Survey maps, and clearly signposted, so there is no doubt as to where you can legally cross private land.

Consequently, with these paths giving easy walking access to some of the most beautiful and varied landscapes in the British countryside, 77% of the British population regularly walk for pleasure; so ‘Rambling’ has now become Britain’s most popular outdoor activity.

Second to walking, cycling has become another great outdoor passion for Brits. It all started back in the 1970s when a charity called Sustrans bought a stretch of redundant railway line between Bristol and Bath and converted it into a cycle path. Since then, they’ve purchased disused railway lines across the country to help create a network of 16,575 miles of traffic free cycle paths across the length and breadth of Britain linking towns and cities together.

So that now over half the British population lives within less than a mile from the cycle network.

The National Cycle Network: Paths for Everyone

Questions & Answers

    Your Comments

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      • Nathanville profile imageAUTHOR

        Arthur Russ 

        2 months ago from England

        If you do, I'm sure that if you pick a find day you'll love it as much as we did; you should be able to get some brilliant photos.

      • Eurofile profile image

        Liz Westwood 

        2 months ago from UK

        Aysgarth looks like a lovely spot with good facilities. I don't think High Force is so wheelchair accessible. Hopefully we can take a trip to Aysgarth with family.

      • Nathanville profile imageAUTHOR

        Arthur Russ 

        2 months ago from England

        Free car parking for the Aysgarth Falls is provided by the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The waterfalls are just a 10 minutes’ walk from the car park. And located within the carpark is the Coppice Café, a small family run business that serves homemade cakes and other locally produced produce such as honey, cream and jams etc. The café provides additional income for local housewives and farms in the surrounding villages, for making the cakes and other produce at home, from local produce. Which I think is a good concept for supporting the local community.

        I found this video which briefly shows the visitor centre and cafe, and provides other useful information about Aysgarth Falls. Albeit, it was filmed last summer during the height of the heatwave, so the river level was unusually low:- https://youtu.be/eqXadF1LQwg

      • Eurofile profile image

        Liz Westwood 

        2 months ago from UK

        I envisage a time whenever we go out, we shall be ducking the drones unless tighter regulations are put in place.

        Aysgarth Falls look impressive. We were once higher up in Richmond by the river and then at High Force one autumn, which was quite impressive. I must put Aysgarth on the list as we have family in West Yorkshire. Similarly St. Ives. I had come across the Cornwall and Cambridgeshire ones, but not heard of St. Ives in Yorkshire before.

      • Nathanville profile imageAUTHOR

        Arthur Russ 

        2 months ago from England

        I’d love a drone, but with all the regulations in the pipeline to restrict their use (and quite sensibly too), I think I might be a little apprehensive in using it.

        Whenever we’ve been to Uley (only 25 miles from Bristol, where we live) I’ve never had my video camera with me; although I did get some gorgeous photos of Hetty Pegler’s Tump on our last visit.

        My mother’s side of the family came across with the Normans during the Norman invasion of 1066 and settled in Uley and the surrounding area, where they stayed until moving to Bristol in the 1850s; genealogy being one of my hobbies. And interestingly (but perhaps not surprising), in tracing my roots back, it transpires that I’m a direct descent of the Pegler’s family; Mary Peglar born 1705 being my 5th time great grandmother.

        Although where I did get some good footage of how accessible the English countryside is was when we were on holiday in the Yorkshire Dales a few years ago:

        Aysgarth Falls, West Yorkshire: https://youtu.be/w5_H5Og2ytc

        Nature Reserve at St Ives Country Estate in West Yorkshire: https://youtu.be/25u0rgB7jMo

      • Eurofile profile image

        Liz Westwood 

        2 months ago from UK

        I wondered at first if you had invested in a drone for some aerial photography! Then I realised that these were links to other footage. It makes me realise how much we have to appreciate in our'green and pleasant land'.

      • Nathanville profile imageAUTHOR

        Arthur Russ 

        2 months ago from England

        Yes, very well put.

        When I was a kid I and my friends used to roam the Cotswolds freely, which invariably meant crossing farmland all the time, and the farmers were always friendly; I didn’t think anything of it at the time.

        One of my frequent haunts as a kid in the Cotswolds was Hetty Pegler’s Tump, a Neolithic burial chamber (5,000 years old); an Ancient Monument preserved by English Heritage, but only accessible by crossing the farmers field.

        Hetty Pegler's Tump ('Uley Long Barrow' in the Cotswolds): https://youtu.be/xa_t7IBHvMM

        Uley (the village where I spent my childhood playing in the Hills): https://youtu.be/2wjXamQ8RPM

        And to get to Secondary school, I used to nip across the local farmers field to get to the bus stop, without giving it a second thought, because it was so natural; the done thing.

        So, as you said, we are very fortunate in this aspect; if not in everything.

      • Eurofile profile image

        Liz Westwood 

        2 months ago from UK

        This interesting article serves as a useful reminder of how fortunate we are (in some ways) in the UK.

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