Celebrating Memorial Day With Vintage Posters From America's War Years
In Memory of Austin Avery, a World War II Veteran
The Importance of Freedom
Freedom, as protected by The Constitution, is more than just a brown, aging parchment protected by federal law beneath a bulletproof sheet of glass. Freedom is an attitude, a feeling in the hearts in our citizens. We enjoy being able to set out on our own direction in their lives. We love being part of a country where opinions and ideas are freely expressed.
When international conflict arises and all avenues of civil discussion and negotiation have failed, then the civil-thinking turns to survival-thinking, and steps must be taken to insure that freedom and democracy can flourish in our country instead of giving away our civil rights.
Give me liberty, or give me death!— Patrick Henry, 1775
Freedom was why the United States fought in the world wars—freedom to have a family, job, security, and peace. The U.S. is still the hope of foreign countries where citizens, subdued by a despot, live in fear because open assemblies to protest the government's policy are forbidden.
The Four Freedoms
Freedom from want, freedom from fear, freedom to worship, and freedom of speech were the words expressed by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) in his 1941 State of the Union address to the American people.
Inspired by FDR's speech, popular American artist and illustrator Norman Rockwell took the freedoms' theme to create posters for funding the war effort. These posters appeared in The Saturday Evening Post in 1943 and remain in the U.S. Treasury Collection today. Among the four-million posters printed during the war, the four-freedoms posters became the most popular.
The "To Have and To Hold" Poster
Little information is available about Vic Guinnell, but the surname is common in the State of Massachusetts.
The man's cleverness is evident in the multiple meaning of the phrase "To Have and to Hold" on the poster. For example, the phrase is commonly used in wedding vows. On the poster, the phrase directly refers to the youthful soldier holding onto the flag, which implies the freedoms associated with it. Finally, war bonds were something a purchaser had to "hold" for the government bond to reach maturity when the value usually doubled.
Background of USAAF O'er the Ramparts Poster
The image of the young man standing in the clouds and holding a rocket-shaped bomb was created by Jes Wilhelm Schlaikjer to help recruit training pilots for the United States Army Air Force during WWII.
While enlisted in the U.S. Army, Schlaikjer was chosen as the War Department artist in 1942. He painted not only posters for the branches of the military, but for the Red Cross as well.
The "Sub Spotted" Poster
The creator of the "Sub Spotted" poster was McClelland Barclay, who served as a lieutenant in the Naval Reserve in 1938. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, he went on active duty and eventually reached the rank of lieutenant commander, the rank he held until his death in 1943.
The “You Buy ‘em, We’ll Fly ‘em” Poster
This poster created by the Wilkinson father-son team began with pencil sketches, which were then transferred to canvas using a pantograph. The U.S. Treasury then photographed the final painting for mass distribution, an unprecedented 1.5 million posters.
Notice the pilot's smile, the thumb-up, and the colonial Minuteman in the lower right-hand corner of the poster. Positive images are needed for morale during wartime.
"His Life is in Your Hands" Poster
This action poster by John Vickery encouraged weapons factory workers back home in the U.S. of the importance of their workmanship accuracy and quality. The war effort depending upon many people working together successfully. A majority of the factory jobs were held by women.
The "We Have Just Begun to Fight" Poster
When Japan bombed Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, a whole new facet of WWII opened, this time the Pacific. The top seven locales listed on the poster are all part of the Pacific Ocean.
Casablanca, Algiers, and Tunisia, though, were part of Germany's Erwin Rommel's effort to block the Allies, consisting of 26 nations, from defeating Italy, which was part of the Axis at the time. The Axis had invaded Africa and were attempting to hold onto it. Many allied countries had established interests in northern Africa.
The poster reminded everyone, soldiers and workers at home, that the war wasn't over, and that, through the expression of this poster, we had to continue cooperation and muster our determination.
A Farewell Sentiment
I do not know of any American living today who doesn't love the freedoms that our servicemen and women have fought for and kept. I for one, salute ALL of our heroes in the Armed Forces then and now, for all of their sacrifices to help keep our country the best nation on the face of the earth.
Most of the information in this article was retrieved from archives of the U.S. Treasury Department and the War Department, for which I am grateful.
I also wish to thank Marie Flint for editing and adapting my original article for Memorial Day. Thank you, Marie!