President Trump's Economic Growth Will Be No Better Than President Obama's

Updated on June 8, 2017
My Esoteric profile image

My Esoteric spent 20+ years as a DoD Cost and Economic Analyst as well as a program manager of the Air Force Total Cost of Ownership MIS.

The Myth About President Obama's "Failing" Economic Policy

If you listen to Fox Pundits and other conservative commentators, you would come away thinking that President Obama failed to grow the economy. The Weekly Standard almost correctly pointed out that Obama's growth, 1.5%, was half that of President Carter's four-years. 3.3% (I pegged it at 2.95%, but close enough for government work). The implication, of course, is that Obama couldn't even beat such a loser as Carter (He didn't do bad at all when compared to other presidents). They then took it a step further by comparing Obama's 1.5% to the average since 1947 ... 3.3% (I got 3.45%).

They also presented how each President from Truman on did and then showed that Obama had the worst record ... all true. But, what the Weekly Standard, and all other nay-sayers, failed to do was investigate why this was so. Well. I did and will show you that the Right is relying on "alternate facts" in their vociferous denunciation of President Obama's economic record.

What Really Drives GDP Growth in the Long-Term

A year or so ago, I read this small (685 pp) book titled Capital in the Twenty-First Century, by economist Thomas Piketty. In it he makes this claim

"Recall the g measures the long-term structural growth rate, which is the sum of the productivity growth and population growth"1

In terms of a formula this might read g = n + z where:

  • g = total annual long-term GDP growth
  • n = annual population growth
  • z = annual productivity growth

I promise, that is as complicated as it will get in this article, although there will be a lot of data. This idea, by the way, is not unique to Piketty but is a common reality which almost all economists accept as true (after reviewing the empirical data and mathematics). Unfortunately, in political discussions, non-economists won't believe it is true. Instead, they blame President Obama's "anemic" economic growth on bad policy or doing nothing at all.

Instead, I would argue that for short-term growth results, it was the GOP's promise to thwart President Obama's every move as well as the uncertainty of what government economic policy actually is. Over the long-term, however, it is none of those but rather a result of low gains in productivity since before the beginning of the Great 2008 Recession coupled with very low population growth since the 1960s.

1 Piketty, Thomas (2014), Capital in the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge, The Belknap Press of Harvard University, p.228

The Proof is in the Pudding

TO SHOW the efficacy of our population-productivity-growth model, I grabbed some data to offer and then plot.

  • The Bureau of Labor Statistics provided the average annual productivity increases for various time periods since 1947
  • Annual population growth numbers came from a S&P 500 table at
  • Total annual GDP growth rates are based on data from Bureau of Economic Analysis at

For each productivity time period bucket the annualized GDP and population growth rates were determined.

The result is Table 1 as well as Chart 1.

GDP Growth vs Population and Productivity Growth

1947 - 1973 (26 yrs)
1973 - 1979 (6 yrs)
1979 - 1990 (11 yrs)
1990 - 2000 (10 yrs)
2000 - 2007 (7 yrs)
2007 - 2016 (9 yrs)
2010 - 2016 (6 yrs, US Census)
1947 - 2007 (60 yrs)

GDP Growth vs Population and Productivity Growth

CHART 1 | Source

The truth of the model should be obvious to even a causal glance. Clearly, GDP growth tracks very nicely with the sum of population and productivity growth. Further, the observation that this formula works better for the long-term as opposed to the short-term is borne out by the error terms on the right axis. i.e. generally speaking, the longer the time frame, the smaller the error term.

Monetary policy (that controlled by the Federal Reserve) is directed at short-term growth by dampening the wild swings in the business cycle. But it is the long-term which you, I, and the politicians should be worried about; and, based on the above, you don't need to be an economist to understand that the two levers which fiscal policy should be pulling are Population Growth Rates and Productivity Growth Rates.

Said another way, if fiscal and public policy are oriented to increasing either the population growth rate or the productivity growth rate or both, then long-term growth rates will increase above their current level. Anything less might result in a short-term bump in GDP rates, but in the long-term, they will fall back to somewhere near the sum of those two factors.

And that's a fact!

So, What Can Be Done?

As it turns out, quite a bit actually. Let's start with Population.

Why Is Population Important?

To state the obvious, it is because population growth does three critical things:

  • Creates new demand
  • Provides additional labor to produce supply
  • Be large enough to compensate for profits 1

Simply said, without population growth (or too little) to fuel GDP growth, the economy must decline unless there is enough productivity growth to make up for the deficit

A Little History

The term "baby-boomers" should be familiar to you by now, it has been around since the 1950s; in fact, I am one. Why? Because I was born in 1947 right at the beginning of a surge in births following WW II, and latter the Korean War. The full boom was actually made up of waves of boomlets and not just the original one (sort of like earthquake aftershocks). Each boomlet was the result of each succeeding generation producing their own set of children. Because the first was so large, then the following generation was large as well. It was this dynamic that helped fuel the large GDP growth beginning in 1957. Even though the rate of births declined each generation, the original input was sufficiently large and long that the next few generations, when added to the previous ones kept the overall birth rate growing.

This cycle repeated itself year after year until 1964 when the cumulative birth rates started falling. By 1972, the children of people born in 1952 or so stopped having enough children to replenish those who died; that number is thought to be about 2.1 live births per woman. In other words, to keep the population growing, each woman, on average needs to produce enough kids to replace herself and the father, plus a little bit. Well, after 1972, that stopped happening. A look at Table 2 will show that America is in what we Vietnam vets call "deep kimchi"

1 "Profit" is what makes capitalism great. It provides the motivation for entrepreneurship and the means to grow businesses. It is also capitalism's own death warrant, if not properly managed.

  • Too little population/productivity growth, then profits eat up the resources needed to pay for labor and materials
  • Not regulated properly, profits allow capitalism to devolve into monopolies and oligopolies, both of which destroy the concept of free-market.

Historical U.S. Total Fertility Rates (TFR)

~ 3.3
Records Began
~ 2.2
Low Point of Great Depression
~ 3.6
Near End of Baby Boomer Era
~ 1.8
Middle of Oil Crisis
~ 1.9
CIA Estimate, a Historic Low
TABLE 2 - Total Fertility Rate (Replacement rate for America is 2.1) Source:

Fortunately, in 2016, we are still living off of the fat of the baby boomer period (called Population Momentum) ... and increasing numbers of immigrants, both legal and illegal, coming into America. The reason immigrants are so important is that at least in the first generation, their fertility rates are much higher than native born Americans.

Clearly, left to our own devices, our population will begin to actually decline in another three or four generations - and our economic growth along with it (unless, of course, there is an offsetting increase in productivity growth).

That leads us to our first Public Policy action we can take to help reverse the inevitable - increase immigration.

Ellis Island - 12 Million Immigrants Flowed Through Here


What's Immigration Got To Do With It?

Everything, as we just saw. Because native born residents do not produce enough progeny to replace all those who die, at least since 1972, the only source for "new blood" are immigrants (legal and illegal) to America. Further, to be helpful, they would need to arrive in sufficient numbers to compensate for the 0.43 deficit in fertility rate.

According to a Pew Research study 2015 - 2016 was a watershed year. That was the year when the population of people who were born to parents also born in America began declining! Yes, that's right, it was only a short two years ago (if you are reading this 2017 or 2018) that America's (like Russia) is actually getting smaller!! And, unless productivity or immigration picks up substantially, economic growth will be minimal.

If it were left to solely to productivity growth (meaning the nativists currently being represented in the White House, get their way with immigration and population growth drops to zero), then productivity would have to grow at 3.5% or more annually over the long-term to meet President Trump's lowered target of 3% (down from his campaign promise of 4%). Here is the problem ... productivity growth in America has not been that high since at least WW II. So that doesn't seem like a viable option.

On the other hand, if it were left to population growth (keeping productivity constant) to grow the economy, then the population would need to grow at roughly 0.71% annually. Unfortunately, our population (including current immigration numbers) is only at 0.41% annually (from Table 1) and getting worse! If the current political majority is successful, immigration will be curbed, and the race to less population growth will only accelerate.

So how many new immigrants a year do we need to maintain a population growth of 0.71%? Well, if my math is right, about double the amount arriving on our shores each year. In approximate numbers there are about 1 million new immigrants coming in a year. But to push our growth up to 0.71% from 0.41%, another 950 thousand will need to join us each an every year. Worse, if our native born growth rate keeps declining, even more immigrants will be needed!

But, under our current political environment, that is not going to happen, is it.?

Do You Agree?

I claim (and hopefully proved) that long-term economic growth is tied closely with growth in population and productivity. Do you agree?

See results

The Nay-Sayers

Whenever I raise this point in other discussions on Hub Pages or in social media, I get slammed by the Right (and sometimes by the Left, as well) telling me I don't have a clue what I am talking about. "If that is true", I respond, "then the vast majority of economists don't know what they are talking about either". What do the nay-sayers offer in return? Normally, whatever is the solution du jour being bandied about in the media (save for media that take a deep dive into economics). Never do they point to the real drivers of economic growth ... productivity and population.

Having said that, if we just focus on the short-term, some of the things the nay-sayers offer actually will work ... in the short-term. There are clearly certain monetary (Fed) and fiscal (Congress) polices that can be followed which will often increase economic growth for a little while, but the growth will soon reside. Also, if Congress or the Fed (or both, as in the 1999 - 2006 lead-up to the Great Recession 1) go overboard in trying to making growth happen then the crash that certainly will follow can be quite serious.

Today, the solution from the GOP is to 1) stop multi-lateral trade deals, 2) cut taxes for rich, 3) kill domestic spending, while expanding defense spending), 4) repeal (and maybe replace) Obamacare, 5) decrease legal and illegal immigration, 6) stop addressing the inevitable effects of climate change, 7) deregulate the financial sector and anything else they can, 8) institute a public-private toll/fee based infrastructure initiative, and other things along these lines.

Only a few of these address the long-term problems of declining population growth and anemic long-term productive growth. Those would be #5, #6, and #7. The rest will have a short-term, and mostly depressing impact. Let's discuss the three I pointed out for a moment.


The plan, if you listen to the campaign promises of those in charge right now (there is no real plan yet), is to kick the 12 million illegal immigrants out of the country and decrease the number of legal immigration to the US 2. That, as we saw above, will lead to a rapid decline in population growth since immigration is the only reason our population is currently growing. Either one of these two programs, if successful, will depress future economic growth in America.

Ignoring Climate Change

Everything real climate scientists know about climate change points to huge costs, both business and social, if their warnings are ignored ... which is the current mindset of President Trump, his administration, and the GOP. We know from history that it won't be until disaster happens that these people will grudgingly come around and support much more costly initiatives to limit the damage. How does this fit in with my argument? Because, every dollar business spends on repairing the damage caused by climate change and every person hired to do the repair work will lower productivity.

Of course, the nay-sayers will point out this truth applies to today as well. They will say by trying to fight the rise in greenhouse gases will also lower productivity today. And you know what? They would be right! BUT, which would you rather have, productivity lowered 0.2% annually today or 10% 20-years from now? (the numbers are for demonstration only) I know my choice, what is yours?


It is true, but I know few will believe me, the primary reason governments in a free society like ours make laws is to mitigate damage already caused by others, be they individuals or business entities. Think about it, probably 95% of all laws and regulations have been created because one entity was harming one or a million other entities already and probably for a long time.

The best modern example is President Nixon's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which is currently in the process of being neutered by President Trump and Director Pruitt. The reason the EPA was created was to combat pollution of all types because industry would simply not police themselves. And the massive push-back (similar to what climate change is facing today) Nixon received made It was clear that short-term profits were more important to business (and the politicians that support them) than the health of our people and the environment we live in.

After the industrial revolution of the 1800s, productivity (output per unit of input, be it labor or robot) increases were enormous. Part of the reason is companies didn't have to spend part of their resources on not polluting the environment. As a result, cities disappeared under a layer of smog (which I personally observed in my lifetime), lakes and rivers were poisoned, forests were clear-cut with no reforestation, poisoned river waters made it into the food chain, and many other crimes against humanity. Industry had every incentive not to do a thing about it because it would decrease productivity and therefore their profits. Over time, "incentives" were built into laws and implementing regulations which resulted in remarkable, but expensive improvements in our environment; it also depressed productivity.

President Trump and the GOP are trying to reverse this trend by killing many regulation designed to keep our environment livable. Should they succeed, productivity will increase for awhile (because less "inputs" are needed to keep the earth safe). But the cost, of course, is an earth where it is not healthy to live as well as orders of magnitude more cost to clean it up later.

Another set of regulations designed to protect Americans from corporate malfeasance are those controlling the financial sector. Most were put in place after the Great Depression of 1929 (you have to give a year because there have been around five other great depressions in our history); Roosevelt and the lawmakers wanted to prevent a repeat performance. This worked well until 1999 when the GOP Congress and President Clinton decided these laws weren't needed any more. Between then and 2007, most of the regulations designed to prevent a major recession or depression were sent to regulation heaven. That set the stage for the next major recession in 2008. One consequence of this recession was a major drop in productivity.

In its aftermath, new laws were created such as the Dodd-Frank Act and the Consumer Protection Agency. On the chopping block in the new Trump administration are these same laws whose purpose is to prevent another 2008 Great Recession.

Productivity increases, therefore, are directly tied to deregulation as the inputs these regulations require begin to decrease as Corporate America starts to do the bad things these regulation prevented. So yes, deregulation can increase long-term economic growth, but at what cost?

1 According to the official Financial Crisis Inquiry Report, the two overarching causes of the Great 2008 Recession are 1) fiscal and 2) monetary policy mistakes. In the first case, congress, controlled by conservative Republicans, in keeping with their economic philosophy, carried out a major deregulation of financial industry. (Yes, President Clinton did sign the most important piece of deregulation which rescinded the 1938 law created to prevent what happened a decade later). The latter mistake was Fed Chairman Alan Greenspan's mistaken belief that in abnormal times, markets are self-correcting; he admitted this mistake near the end of his term.

2 Surveys show that modern immigration demographics lower the average age of America's population (a good thing) as well as increase the number of married couples in the US (also a good thing).

Making the Population and Productivity Grow


There are two avenues the government can follow to reverse America's declining population and the consequential decline in economic growth. One is to increase the birth rate of native Americans while the other is to increase immigration. Obviously, the latter is much easier to do than the former.

Immigration control is a matter of legislative action and good planning. America has a long history of increasing and decreasing immigration rates; sometimes for good economic reasons and others due to a rise of nativism in American politics (which is what we are seeing today). It is as simple as recognizing the need for immigration and changing our laws to encourage it.

Harder is getting Americans who are already here to have more babies. Clearly the government can't order people to have or not have babies in the manner that China has. But it can incentives parents to have more children. One possible way, among many, would be to give a tax credit (not exemption) for the third child. Why do I say the third child? Because if the birth rate increased just that little bit, our population would grow rather than decline as it is doing now.


One cause of lower productivity which I haven't mentioned yet is income inequality. The reasoning follows common sense in two related areas. But first consider Chart 2 below.

What Income Inequality Looks Like

CHART 2 - Notice How the Rich Got Richer Much Faster Than Everyone Else
CHART 2 - Notice How the Rich Got Richer Much Faster Than Everyone Else | Source

So what are some of things that drive income inequality? The first is executive salary. Compared to the time when America experienced good productivity, executive salaries were not out of proportion to other company expenses. Since 1982, and the Reagan tax "cuts", executive salaries have exploded. Since then, more and more dollars have been diverted to compensation well in excess of that needed to maximize productivity from management actions. Consequently, each dollar spent on these huge wages (inputs) will decrease productivity if output does grow proportionately.

Likewise, these huge pay packages also take money that could otherwise go to the line worker (or automation), you know, those people who actually produce the output. It is that dynamic which makes Chart 2 look the ways it does with the top 5th taking a larger and larger share of total income. At the same time, the lower three rungs are obviously losing income share. That ever widening gap is Income Inequality.

Since the Great Recession of 2008, blue-collar wages have been suppressed while white collar wages have sky-rocketed. It should be no surprise to anybody that the worse the working conditions and/or the worse (perceived or real) the wages, the less incentive people have to work efficiently and effectively. This, of course, must end up in a decrease in productivity; and therefore economic growth. Today, most workers at large corporations understand very well they are not appreciated nor paid their actual worth while their bosses are paid more than they deserve. How do they see this? Because their CEOs make 300 to 400 times what they do when back in the 1970s, it was only 25 times as much. Bottom line, why should they work hard?

Finally, another way to increase productivity (without ruining the environment) is automation. In fact, automation is the reason productivity grew through the 1990s, up to the Great Recession. There are downsides to automation however, the main one being the loss of jobs tied with the lack of education to obtain others.

Final Thoughts

I Hope I have made a good case that the true targets of fiscal and social policy must be population and productivity growth if America ever hopes to get to regain its former economic glory. It is clearly an achievable goal, but to attain it, the public needs to understand it and elect those politicians who understand it as well.

But given the vast partisan divide, the lack of understanding on how the economy really works by President Trump and the ruling party1 as well as the minority party's inability to connect with working America, then the likelihood of good economic growth is out of our reach for the foreseeable future.

1 Once upon a time, back in the 1960s and 70s, the GOP actually accepted Keynesian economics and the need for long-term planning.

© 2017 Scott Belford


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • My Esoteric profile imageAUTHOR

      Scott Belford 

      16 months ago from Keystone Heights, FL

      Then WHY Brad, do you keep insisting Trump is doing a fantastic job at the economy and Obama did poor. I am confused?

    • profile image


      16 months ago


      You keep making the success or the failure of the US economy as if one president or the other president did better or the other failed. The important point is that the US is not your local sports team where when your team wins it is great because the other team lost. We have one team, the US Congress and one Coach the president of the US. When Congress or the president Fails, no one in the US wins.

      We have only one team, when they lose we lose. Think about that!

    • My Esoteric profile imageAUTHOR

      Scott Belford 

      3 years ago from Keystone Heights, FL

      That is a good idea on retraining miners, etc for defense jobs. If fact, they say they Don't Want to go back to the mines, they want to be retrained into jobs that have a future.

    • peoplepower73 profile image

      Mike Russo 

      3 years ago from Placentia California

      My Esoteric: Thanks for answering both of my questions.

      1. I never thought about being near full employment and the minimal effect it would have on an increase in GDP. Also, I wonder if coal miners and steel workers would be willing to cross-train into defense contract type jobs? I think many of those jobs will be taken over by automation.

      2. I'm sure most of the people who benefited from the TARP "claw back" put their money in the Cayman Islands or Swiss banks. accounts. Therefore, their contribution to the GDP would be minimal at best.

    • My Esoteric profile imageAUTHOR

      Scott Belford 

      3 years ago from Keystone Heights, FL

      Mike, thanks for perceiving through it. The subject is not easy to "prove" in a few words, charts, and graphs. I also appreciate the questions.

      1. Yes, the Saudi arms deal can increase GDP because gov't spending is part of the calculation. More gov't spending, everything else being equal, the greater the GDP (The reverse is obviously true as well).

      But can it be a "stimulus" generating many more jobs other than the direct ones needed? No, not really unless, and it is an important "unless", the economy is in a recession that has substantially increased unemployment.

      The other problem Trump faces is that in terms of available people to do the work, we are already at full-employment, so there aren't very many available. For the most part, those who are still looking for work don't have the training, education, or skills to take on the defense work.

      So what might happen when all of this work is dumped on the economy? The defense industry competes with the non-defense, private sector for labor driving up labor and other costs as well as interest rates as financing is competed for.

      Further, this will be a short-term increase in GDP growth because in and of itself this work won't fundamentally change population or productivity growth.

      2. As to your sub-prime question, the answer is "it depends". It depends on what was done with all of the money and where it was spent.

      - To the degree it was spent or invested overseas, then no, there is little impact on GDP.

      - To the degree it was used to pay of debt, no again, there is little impact on GDP

      - If the money was spent on things, services, or domestic investments, then yes it could very well increase GDP

      - Finally, if it is saved, then it becomes the source for other investment

    • peoplepower73 profile image

      Mike Russo 

      3 years ago from Placentia California

      This is a very rigorous analysis of how GDP is driven by both productivity growth and population growth. I have two questions for you.

      Trump just cut a deal to supply the Saudi's with arms for 350 billion over the next ten years, of which 110 billion is supposed to be available immediately. According to Trump this is supposed to create "job, jobs, jobs."

      I remember in the the 60's and 70's the defense contract work was booming as thousands were employed to build weapons and defense systems to contain the Soviet Union. It seems that a large part of those earnings were mostly put back into the main stream of the economy to increase economic growth.

      Do you think Trump is trying to do the same thing now and will it work given that we have in a sense prostituted ourselves to the Saudi's? It's really guns for money without any regard that some of their enemies are our allies. I guess the real question here is does defense contract work increase our GDP?

      Also the sub-prime mortgage industry and all its exotic investments instruments of 2008 were all digital numbers in the input, but they yielded huge bucks on the output. Did that have any effect on the GDP?

      Excellent article, a bit long, but if you have the interest, you will stick with it.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)